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Adolf Josef Toma

France • 1824−1886

From 1841 he studied at the school of drawing in Marseille. In 1846 he enrolled in the Paris Studio of P. Delaroche. A deep impression on him made the painting of Eugene Delacroix. In 1856, he met with Diaz. In 1870, with the beginning of the Franco-Prussian war, forever leaving Paris. He painted in the spirit of Watteau, perceived through art Diaz and still lifes and portraits. His pictures found a sale in Paris, in England, especially in Scotland. He prepared the ground for expressionism and the paintings of the fauves

Tom Adolphe Joseph Monticelli was born in 1824 in Marseille in a poor family of Italian immigrants. According to one version of the biography, the artist's ancestors were Venetians. During the life of Monticelli and his painting seemed too bold and was interested in a fairly narrow circle of art lovers, among whom were, however, Cezanne and van Gogh. Fame came to Monticelli posthumously. His first exhibition was held in the salon d'automne, 1908, 20 years after his death. He immediately became a legend. In the biography of the master there are many outstanding places.

Natural talent of the artist manifested itself early. At a young age, while studying at the school of drawing in Marseille, where he arrived in 1841, Monticelli won the first prize for drawing from a live model. In 1846 he arrived in Paris in the famous workshop of Paul Delaroche, the artist's salon-academic areas. However, Monticelli did not stay there long. Copying in the Louvre paintings by Veronese, Rembrandt and Watteau, he found his true teachers. The nature of perception of the world Monticelli was a romantic. Not surprisingly, exhibitions of modern masters the most profound impression on him made the painting of Eugene Delacroix. And Delacroix, as if also saw the work of young artists and endorsed them.

In 1850-ies Monticelli met the artists of the Barbizon school, worked with them in the forest of Fontainebleau near Paris. Among them, he was closest to Diaz de La peña. Monticelli painted landscapes, gallant walks in the Park, still lifes, and portraits. His method is improvisation. Nature has given a push to the imagination of the painter. He worked quickly, without any preliminary sketch, hasty, nervous strokes overlap the paint with a brush, spatula or sometimes fingers. The tree was his favorite base for painting. The dominant warm range of colors the artist skrepleva some bright spots, reaching the impression of sparkling colors. Paint is never mixed, separate brushstrokes create the vibration of the painting's surface. Its color was compared with crushed precious stones. Passion for his art to such an extent was owned by Monticelli that he would get up at night to jot down the paints nagging thought.

The Parisian period of creativity (1850-1860-e) were very productive, his paintings had some success. Two paintings were purchased by Napoleon III. They are interested in Parisian art dealer, Delabarre. His pictures found a sale in England and especially in Scotland. In 1870, with the beginning of the Franco-Prussian war, Monticelli had left Paris forever. The biographer reports that he was walking to his home on foot. "It was just the beginning of a journey full of want and misery, terminated only with life." Van Gogh, who believed that Monticelli their teacher, came to see him in Marseille, but did not find the artist alive: "the Local doctor told me about Monticelli, that always seemed to him somewhat eccentric (...) is it Possible, knowing how badly off Monticelli in recent years, surprised that he could not bear too heavy burden?" In the memories of their fellow citizens Monticelli was presented as an eccentric, dressed in all black, in flat felt hat with rolled brim, with patrician beard, silent. On the question of how he, the artist replied: "From the moon".

Despite numerous imitators, Monticelli was not direct followers. Its influence has not escaped Cezanne. They worked together at AIX and l'estaque in 1878. Monticelli prepared the ground for twentieth-century art. He is a forerunner of expressionism and the paintings of the fauves.

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