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Jan (Johannes) Theodore Thorop
Jan (Johannes) Theodore
Netherlands 1858−1928
Biography and information

Toorop studied in Delft, Amsterdam(1880-1881), Brussels (1882), in

1888 he moved to the Hague. After the early works painted under the influence of impressionism, Torop makes two trips to England (1884 and 1886), where the art of Blake and the pre-Raphaelites. Contact with the ROP and Redon in Paris (1889) vostorgina will determine his attitude to symbolism, the main representative of which he, along with thorn-Princedom becomes in the Netherlands. After 1900 Torop returning to the more simple and more varied in color aesthetics, which combines the influence of neo-impressionism and van Gogh ("the Channel, near Middelburg", 1907, ibid.). Toorop also created stained glass Windows for TS. Sint-Jozefkerk in Nimagine. The artist's works are represented in Dutch museums in the Hague, Amsterdam and Otterlo.

Born in 1858, in Java, in a mixed family. Since 1869 the family lived in the Netherlands. Toorop went to school first in Leiden, then in Winterswijk, since 1875 in the Hague, where he met with representatives of the Hague school of painting characterized by the realistic direction. Within two years Toorop worked in the Higher technical school of Delft, and at the same time in Delft he took lessons in painting at the Paul Tetar van Elena. He then for two years attended the State Academy of fine arts in Amsterdam and since 1882 — at the Academy of fine arts in Brussels.

In Belgium Torop remained until 1886, visiting England (where he met Whistler and studied the pre-Raphaelite art, which made a deep impression on him. He also visited Paris at this time is actually a major world center for the arts. In Belgium Toropa was influenced tvorchestvo symbolist James Ensor. 12 may 1886 Toorop married to an Englishwoman, Annie Hall. In the same year they moved to England, and in 1890 in Netherlands (Katwijk aan Zee). In 1890, a daughter Charlie, in the future most famous artist.


At the end of 1880-ies Toorop painted in the style of pointillism and became the first Dutch artist that used this technique. In the Netherlands he joined in based in Noordwijk art group "Eighties" (niderl. de Tachtigers). Gradually, however, he shifted to symbolism. In 1892, he within a year joined the community of Rosicrucians. In the same year in the Hague held his first solo exhibition, which exhibited only symbolist work. In 1893 he wrote the most famous of his work in the style of symbolism, "the Three brides".

From the symbolism of Toorop is gradually moving to art Nouveau. In 1895, he executed his first woodcut, in the future graphics and illustrations occupied a significant place in his work. In 1898 he already is a globally recognized artist, his personal exhibitions are held including Munich, Dresden, and Copenhagen, in 1900, he exhibited in Vienna at the secession.


From 1899 to 1904 Toorop lived in Katwijk, then from 1904 in Amsterdam. In the summer it is several months went to Domburg in Zeeland. In 1905 Toorop, a former childhood Protestant, converted to Catholicism, and most of the time after that, he lived in Domburg. His work after 1905 religioznoe characteristic themes of symbolism and the works done in a style similar to pointillism. Recent work in pointilism style dates back to 1907. With 1908, Toorop lived in Nijmegen since 1916 to his death in the Hague. In 1916 he began work on the fourteen stations of the procession carrying the cross for the Catholic Church St. Bernulf in Oosterbeek, a suburb of Nijmegen. In 1917, he was partially paralyzed, but still finished the station, which was consecrated in 1919. The last years of Jan Toorop was confined to a wheelchair. In 1923, he executed a sketch of dvuhromovo postage stamps. In recent years, he virtually wrote the oil, creating graphic works and watercolors. Toorop died on 3 March 1928 in the Hague.

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