Karel van

Netherlands • 1548−1606

Biography and information

To 1568 Karel van Mander was an apprentice at the Ghent artist and poet Lucas de Heere. In 1570 he returned to his hometown Meulebeke and devoted himself to drama and poetry.

In 1573 Munder took a trip to Italy and visited Florence. In Terni Mander received the order for a mural depicting the massacre of St. Bartholomew in memory of the deceased in 1572 Gaspard de Coligny. This fresco from the Palazzo Spada partially preserved to the present time. In Rome Mander met and became friends with Bartolomeus Spranger.

In 1577 Mander worked in Basel, and later moved to Krems and further to Vienna, where, together with Hans Mont were working on the triumphal arch on the occasion of the arrival in the city of Kaiser Rudolph II in July 1577

Famous Dutch painter, Creator of historical and religious compositions, genre scenes and decorative paintings in the Mannerist style.

Writer and art theorist. The author of an extensive work "the Book of the artists" (1604), historical-geographical essay "the New world, and Description of the West Indies" and "Base destruction and secondary resurgence of Amsterdam", plays and texts of the spiritual songs, the translation of works of ancient literature.

Dutch painter, poet and art theorist Karel van Mander is often called the "Vasari of the North". This honorary title, he was honored for "the Book of the artists" (first published in 1604 in Alkmaar) is a six-volume work, written for 20 years and became the main business of his life. It's about the product is still considered one of the most important sources for studying the cultural history of the Netherlands XV-XVI centuries.

Carl van Mandera combines multiple talents: painter, poet, scholar and translator. But the greatest authority among his contemporaries, he won his nacionele and erudition in the field of theory of art and literature, the Anonymous biographer Mandera (presumably that it was his younger brother Adam) argued: "... a little blyo among the Dutch artists of equal multiplicity of knowledge and education." As for his sobstvennogo creativity, it is not particularly original or deep, and probably was a part of the total flow of the artistic life of the Netherlands in the second half of the XVI century.

The future painter was born in may 1548 in the village Meulebeke, located between the towns of Courtrai and Bruges. He was descended from an old noble family, and many of his ancestors in the thirteenth century in high spiritual positions. His father, Cornelis van Mander, was a petty officer and tax collector in the village of Rozebeke, as well as a national and regional counsel of the city of Courtrai. He was known as an honorable man and a wealthy: had his own house, land and farms, which are leased, owned a fief estates in Bruges received a dowry for his wife Johannas van der Beek. From this marriage he had three sons and a daughter.

Karel is the second child in the family - from childhood stood out among their peers intelligence, liveliness of nature, vospriimchivosti and very creative on the part of the mischief. One day, when the maids whitened house, he drew barely dried on the walls with charcoal and ochre colored caricature portraits of their sweethearts, and even signed ameena. The girls complained to the owner - so Cornelis learned about the beautiful talent of the son. And soon Karel has another passion - writing poetry. Now the fun drawings that he made in school on paper, but home - poprezhnemu on the walls, always. was accompanied by funny verses.

Noticing the literary tendencies of his son, the parents ottdali him to the Latin school in Tilte, where he showed horoshie advances in the study of grammar and syntax. Then Kaarel vospityvalsya have of a French teacher in Ghent under the supervision of his uncle françois van Mander. Finally, to zavershenija art education he was apprenticed first to a skilled painter of that time Lucas de Heere (Heere), and in 1568-1569. - to a no less famous master Peter Vlerick.

After returning home, Karel became involved in theatre performances, for which wrote verse plays and did the sets. Particular success was his play "the Flood". for its execution he wrote on the big sail, the pre-routed cable across the stage, vzdelavaci wave which floated the ark and floated a lot of dead bodies. to achieve greater resemblance to the true events, Karel started up on the stage from above streams of water, imitating heavy rains. The presentation had a strong impression on the audience - many of them crying.

He then wrote and got a lot of the historical text "Nebuchadnezzar" and "Visit of the Queen of Sheba the wise king Solomon" (in the past,involved up to 60 people), as well as scenes from the life of the peasants, to see who came the inhabitants from all the surrounding villages. Soon, the young playwright received in the district is quite loud acclaim, which grew even more after his victories in poetic contests.

Not less successfully manifested itself Munder and as zhivopisets performing religious and historical pictures for the churches, the town hall and private collections. Customers were happy, but the artist himself considered that for the improvement of his skill he needs to learn iskussstv Italian masters. And in 1575 he went to Rome. Here for three years, the Munder revolved in the circle of disciples his famous countryman, Bartolomeo Spranger - court painter to Pope Pius V, and the Austrian Habsburgs. From him he inherited the foundations of which were at that time in fashion, and mannerism.

Characteristic for this area zapadnoevropeiskie art away from nature, natural forms and images, the excessive curves of the human body and the ornate beauty of the images is reflected in many works the artist made in Italy (paintings of scenes from the massacre of St. Bartholomew in the city of Terni; landscapes and murals in the palaces of cardinals; sketches of decorations).

In 1577 Mander went to Austria. In Vienna together with Springera he participated in the design of the triumphal arch on the occasion of the arrival of Emperor Rudolf. The work of the young artist liked it, and he even offered to stay at the Imperial service, but the title of court painter he was not deceive and he soon returned home.

With 1580 began the most productive period in the creative life of Mandera. He writes Nude figures of Adam and eve, the painting "the Flood", creates a tombstone for the song Francois van Mander. Changes in the personal life of the artist. Inspired by the beautiful 18-year-old village girl, Karel marries her and moves to Courtrai. Here he performs ordering the altarpiece with two wings. But in 1582, in connection with the plague Mander with his wife and newborn son Peter was forced to move to Bruges, and then to Haarlem.

In 1583 he settled in Haarlem, and founded there (together with H. Goltzius and Cornelis K.) Academy of art. Wrote Mannerist landscapes, genres and allegorico-mythological paintings (Garden of love, 1602, the Hermitage, St. Petersburg).

In 1604 he moved to Amsterdam.

In Holland, the artist, received by the time the great fame, a lot of work grisaille. He paints pictures on religious, historical and everyday scenes. Mander, Carel van) (1548-1606), Giving this period a clear preference for painting, Mander still did not forget about literature. Moreover, he decided to unite them in one work. Thus arose the idea of "Books About artists" over which Munder has worked from 1583 to 1603, the work he has addressed the art of youth, which wanted to introduce visualsize with the work of past masters and contemporaries. Stressing the importance of this work, in the Preface to the book, the artist wrote that "put a lot of work and time to honor and to pleasure art of painting and all its noble representatives, as well as in the instruction and amusement of young painters".

A lengthy introduction ("the basics of the noble free art of painting") here follows an extensive set of biographies of famous ancient, Italian, Dutch and German artists is unprecedented (as far as the Netherlands and Germany) for its thoroughness and breadth. Last Chapter with commentary to the Metamorphoses of Ovid (as a popular source of artistic scenes and characters), and an overview of ancient iconography. The set of biographies which usually reissued in book form (as it was with its Russian translation), still serves as an invaluable source of information about J. van Eyck, P. Brueghel the Elder and other masters. In the introduction, written in "the form of a didactic poem for the youth", the most interesting practical recipes.

Of most interest are the biographies of the artists. Being in the power of your profession man, dedicated to the "kitchen" painting, Munder performs here a true chronicler hudojestvennoi life, collected and set forth in an entertaining way the huge factual material. It is based on the works of his predecessors, including George. Vasari uses letters and documents, as well as their own memories of meetings with the characters and experience their works.

Because of his love to the description of domestic details and a wonderful visual memory book contains many wonderful touches that conjure the flavor of the era in which lived the master. Describing the work of artists, Munder tried to avoid comparisons, believing that "recklessly to show any of them neglect, or, finally, to elevate one at the expense of another." And to avoid subjective estimates based on his own aesthetic position, he failed. So he often admired purely external virtuosity, "methods" of painting that has nothing to do with genuine art.

This unnecessarily high assessment sounds, for example, in the story about the "amazing skills" of the Dutchman Cornelis Ketel, who was able to paint not only the brush but also hands and feet. Some of the biographies there are many gaps, there is a shift of dates, legends and stories are passed around as truth.

All this is just evidence that the book of Mander - not dispassionate chronicle, but a living and fascinating story of an eyewitness and participant in the events, human beings with their likes and dislikes.

"Book Of the artists" was written in Dutch and first published in 1604, In 1764 it was transferred to the newly Dutch and since then it has withstood many editions.

Finishing his work, Karel van Mander wrote: "it is Time to once again take up the brush and see if I can create something decent".

Unfortunately, the hope of the artist is not justified - masterpieces in his legacy and has not appeared. But he managed cleverly and skillfully to talk about the work more wonderful artists.

And to bring up worthy successors in the person of its star pupil of Frans Hals, and his own son Peter van Mandera Mandera III and grandson of artists who have made quite a significant contribution to the art of Denmark, which became their second home.

Mander died in Amsterdam on 2 September 1606.

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