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Nikanorovich Dubovsky


Born in Novocherkassk in the family of Cossack petty officer of the don Cossacks. He studied at the military school in Kiev, but all the free time devoted to painting. He entered the Academy of arts, he studied painting under the guidance of M. P. Klodt (1877-1881). Repeatedly traveled to Western Europe and the Middle East. The painting "silence has settled" (1890), in which the artist captured the pre-storm weather, brought Dubovsky universal recognition. 1899 Dubovskoy — Board member of the Peredvizhniki group.

Lived mainly in St. Petersburg.Since 1911, Professor-head of landscape workshop of the Academy of arts.

Russian landscape painter N. N. Dubovskoy was born on 5 (17) December 1859 in Novocherkassk in the family of Cossack petty officer of the don Cossacks. Dubovskoy boy went to military school in Kiev, but it is so drawn to art, that every day he would get up two hours early and drew. The Director of the school advised the parents to send his son to study painting. Seventeen Dubovskoy went to St. Petersburg and entered the Academy of fine Arts, where in the years 1877-1881 were: Professor of landscape painting Baron M. K. Klodt.


Landscape painter by vocation and Keeper of the sacred traditions peredvizhnichestva by conviction, N.N. Dubovskoy belonged to the younger generation of the Wanderers. His dedication to the art of telling jokes. One day he was so absorbed in his work on sketches from life that he forgot about his own wedding and was in Church when he's almost stopped waiting.


Already in 1884 Dubovskoy - among the Wanderers. Then, in 1884, held its first performance of the young landscapist at the traveling exhibition, which was appreciated by art critics of the time, in particular, Vladimir Stasov, and collectors: P. M. Tretyakov acquires for his gallery his painting "Winter". In this, quite independent of the artist's work shows the influence of his teacher, M. K. Klodt. But perhaps even more notable continuity with the work of A. K. Savrasov and F. A. Vasiliev and A. I. Kuindzhi. "It seemed like Vasiliev and Kuindzhi combined the best of their talents to make this masterpiece," wrote art reviewer of the magazine "Artist", V. N. Mikheev.


After "Winter" was followed by a picture "Early spring" (1886), "Hushed" (1890), "morning in the mountains", "Winter evening," "On the Volga" (1892 and 1903), which brought Dubovsky fame and nominated him in the first ranks of Russian landscape painters. There are a lot of rave reviews about the works of the artist in print, in the memoirs of contemporaries. Here is one of them, Professor V. A. Wagner. "I remember it was long ago, at a traveling exhibition there was a picture of Dubrovsky "On the Volga", - he wrote in 1918. The vast expanse of water, over which are worn a few gulls, a little tiny dot of a distant boat, and above it all the purple clouds, kastelivka and dal, and the heights of the sky. That's all. But beside the picture is constantly crowded audience and stood waiting, obviously not immediately aware of what attracted her to this canvas. The picture was not struck by machinery, though very good, not the workmanship, which, however, was evident, namely the artist's mood, his emotional Symphony upload sounds and colors of his palette. The spectators were chained up to the picture not the picture itself, and that was her soul."


All of these works Dubovsky was bought by Pavel Tretyakov. But one picture stands out in this series, and in the history of Russian art Dubovskoy came primarily as the author of the landscape "silence has settled" (1890, Russian Museum, repetition - the Tretyakov gallery), created by sketches made on the White sea. The artist opened a new motive Wanderers, he said - "silence before the storm", "when breathing is difficult when they feel their insignificance when approaching disaster". To realize this motive, he found an original solution. Flashed sunlight storm clouds are drawn heavy horizontal line, which occupies almost the entire upper half of the picture, above the blackened water, reflected in it. Away - dark shoreline, as appressed to the top and bottom elements of sky and water. Earth loses its materiality, the tangible, palpable here "body" are storm clouds - bright and luminous. Among the best works of world art there are not many paintings in which such completeness, with such clarity is truly a classic would be expressed in what is called the mood. Upon learning that the painting "silence has settled" with a traveling exhibition in St. Petersburg bought the king for a gallery of the Winter Palace, Tretyakov went to the capital to book an artist repeating, because the picture was available to a wide audience. "Repetition for me came out better and bigger, making the motive became grander" - shared his impressions Tretyakov in a letter to Repin.


Tretyakov closely followed by creative development Dubovsky, adding to his collection of his works. The last work of the artist acquired during his lifetime, was the painting "Quiet evening" (1898). "A poem in gold" they called it the reviewer for the "Russian Gazette", N.Selivanov: "the Painting produces an extraordinary effect. The sky, barely visible clouds, sea, air, water - everything shines Golden and Golden colors hot, clear day. The richness of these tones emanating from a single, basic, and merging in it, amazing."


But where are these pictures, why, but "Silenced", a whole generation of Russians could not see Dubovsky other works in the gallery? The answer is simple: of the ten paintings Dubovsky, purchased by Tretyakov, five have long since left the halls of the Tretyakov gallery. First they moved to the repository, and then was "displaced" museums in distant cities of the former USSR. So, "silent night" in 1931, appeared in the far Eastern art Museum, "Early spring" in 1962, arrived in the Turkmen state Museum of fine arts, landscape "After the storm" - in the Saratov state art Museum... Or as a reference to such action not called. What is so "guilty" Dubovskoy, or wrong in their tastes Tretyakov, in vain to collect his work?

But something similar happened with the legacy of the artist in St. Petersburg. Yes, now in the collection of the Russian Museum there are 27 of his works. But in the exhibition it is presented only a few works ("Silenced", and five of six studies). Central works Dubovsky, such as "Imatra" (1894), "low Tide" (1898), "Calm" (1899), "homeland" (1904), "Dawn" (1913) - the last three of them before the revolution was in the collection of the Museum of the Academy of arts, - again, were "sent" to the periphery. The painting "Calm", transmitted in 1929 from the Russian Museum in Kalinin regional picture gallery, you can still go to look. And necessary, because it, along with the "Silenced" which was demonstrated at the Paris world exhibition of 1900, where Dubovskoy was awarded the silver medal, the only Russian landscape painters (no V. D. Polenov, nor I. I. Levitan, then, has not received awards). But "Home" is the most significant and large size painting (167 x 275 cm), see easy: she is now in Siberia, in the Omsk regional Museum of fine arts. And in 1911 this painting was exhibited at the world exhibition in Rome. That it there did not go unnoticed, evident in the letter Repin addressed Dubovsky from Rome: "This is the best landscape throughout the exhibition world, Roman... You Nikanorovich Nicholas, I especially congratulate: You've never been so magnificent and powerful - original, lively and beautiful picture!!!"


Of course, you can ignore the opinion of such authority, as I. E. Repin, such critic, V. V. Stasov, and other equally well-known figures of Russian culture. It is possible, violating the post-mortem will of P. M. Tretyakov not divide gathered a collection of works by Russian artists, to do the opposite. But for what and in what order? Too obvious a desire to spread the legacy Dubovsky through the cities and villages of our vast country, so his works could no longer connect in the same room. In the present work.N. Dubovsky is represented in more than 70 museums of Russia and foreign countries. At first glance, the purpose like a noble: to acquaint with the work of artist viewers remote border regions of the former Soviet Union. But in fact the legacy of Dubovsky have been excluded from the artistic process. Need to travel across the country to make a complete picture of the artist. And after the collapse of the Soviet Union became even worse: many of the works Dubovsky are abroad, and access to them is even more limited.


Here, for example, I. I. Levitan - is another matter. A separate room with his works was at the Tretyakov gallery, one in the Russian Museum. And at the time when the work of Dubovsky from here distributed to other museums, Levitan carefully collected. Tretyakov acquired twenty works of Levitan (along with sketches), now in the gallery of their number approaching a hundred. In the Russian Museum was first purchased one of his paintings, whose posthumous exhibition of the artist in 1901 added another four. Now thirty - eight. Probably no one would think to argue against such a careful attitude to the creative heritage of Levitan. But then the question arises: why Dubovskoy deprived of the same attention?


"Rock of rejection hanging over Dubowski!" - they said the family of the artist. The support of such luminaries of Russian culture and lack of recognition. Another mystery of his creative destiny. Leafing through old magazines and Newspapers, reading reviews, travelling exhibits, make sure that Dubovsky was a sin to complain about lack of attention critics. He belonged to the younger generation of the Wanderers, the "Association" entered in 1886, in 1889, became a permanent member of the Council of the "Association of traveling Art Exhibitions". Since the second half of the 1880s he began to participate in exhibitions together with A. Arkhipov, A. Vasnetsov. Valentin Serov, Konstantin Korovin, whose names are associated the emergence of the new Russian landscape painting. Based on the experience of the senior Wanderers, laid the foundations of realistic landscape, they continued their quest in creating the so-called "mood landscapes". Its essence was the statement purely visual fidelity of the image and transfer, first, impressions, caused by a particular motive of nature.


In related traveling exhibitions names Dubovsky and Levitan are nearby. Moreover, Dubovskoy takes place after Shishkin and Polenov and Levitan long thought to be only "one of the strongest competitors Dubovsky". At a traveling exhibition in 1890 at the centre of attention of the reviewers was the picture Dubovsky "Quiet," Arkhipov "ACE", Levitan's "Evening. Golden Plyos" and "After the rain. Ples". In the magazine "world illustration" Vladimir Chuiko, negatively describing the work of landscape artists in the exhibition, noted that "an exception may be only Dubovskoy and question: they have seen attempts to go beyond the established routine. Only they attract attention of the audience and say." M. V. Nesterov's letter to his family from Kiev reports the opinion of V. M. Vasnetsov on the traveling exhibition, 1891: "Swears that the best thing at the show, then Dubovskoy, Serov, Repin". I. E. Repin in a letter to Pavel Tretyakov about the traveling exhibition of 1892: "Dubrovsky "On the Volga" the amazing thing to perfection. Like done water, sky, as in all poetry - the best thing on the show." About the exhibition 1895 M. V. Nesterov wrote: "Levitan this time weaker. Dubovskoy two or three things are good, but in General, now is not strong." He's on the next mobile exhibition in 1896: "the Exhibition is diverse and interesting. Especially good Serov, Levitan, Dubovskoy, Konstantin Korovin". In 1898, five young Wanderers "for fame in the artistic field" was awarded the title of academician of painting A. E. Arkhipov, N. N. Dubovskoy, Nikolai.. Kasatkin, I. I. Levitan, V. A. Serov.


Enough of these reviews to see how significant was the role Dubovsky in new Russian landscape painting. And the question was not so much to give "palm", but in the fact that both artists - and Dubovskoy, and Levitan objectively argued in his work the principles of the "landscape of mood". Only Dubovskoy was represented by the St. Petersburg school of landscape, and Levitan - Moscow. As you can see, Dubovskoy at that time occupied a worthy place in Russian art, equally sharing it with Levitan. However, beginning in 1898, with the advent of the new Association of artists grouped around the magazine "World of art", the situation changes dramatically. "Golden time" of the Association of traveling art exhibitions has passed and it is in crisis. In the pages of "World of art" Wanderers are subjected to derogatory criticism, blamed "the lack of desire for technical excellence" in "ignoring the resolution of artistic problems", etc. In the Partnership, in addition to the so-called ballast, consisted of many major artists - Repin, Surikov, Vasnetsov... Starts pulling at your camp for young Wanderers and, above all, Serov, Levitan, Nesterov. An attempt was made to entice and Repin, whose works were devoted to a special issue of the journal. Often in direct relation to this was given and the assessment of works of the artist.


After the death of N.. Yaroshenko (1898) Dubovskoy was the ideological leader of the Partnership. He enjoys well-deserved authority and respect among artists many works successfully and creatively. But what are the reviews about his works? The author of the anonymous notes about the traveling exhibition of 1899 in the magazine "World of art", noting the good work on it, Levitan, Nesterov, Surikov, further writes: "Some artists which you might expect something interesting, now does not show. So, Svyatoslavsky colourless, and Dubovskoy went back and sad to see this once promising artist down to outright flirting with the audience, to "Aivazovsky"". On the pages of "World of art" there is no positive response about works Dubovsky. But in the next, 1900, his paintings took part in the world exhibition, where, as already mentioned, was awarded a silver medal. Since 1894 Dubovskoy invited to the international exhibition of the Munich "secession", and then sending their work to the "outside jury", and in 1913, for the painting "After the storm" was awarded a gold medal. I can not believe, then, that Dubovsky little interest in artistic tasks and, moreover, that he "went back". Biographers Levitan his participation in exhibitions of "secession" and at the Paris world exhibition is regarded "as a European recognition of his art." How, then, to regard the success Dubovsky? How to evaluate legacy Dubovskoy, whose works with remarkable consistency were sprayed on the country's museums? Hence, a distorted view of him as the author almost the only paintings that inexplicably appeared on the light. All this is reminiscent of the fate of A. K. Savrasov, whose works, except the "single" picture "Rooks have arrived", was little known contemporaries. Now, when his works were identified and assembled together, it turned out that a whole era in the development of Russian landscape.


So no blind fate in oblivion Dubovsky is not, and was and is very real practice of silence, the rise of one artist by belittling another, the theoretical basis of which was the concept of Alexander Benois "History of Russian painting". It is clearly seen in the writings of his followers, I. E. Grabar, A. A. Fedorov-Davydov... Not much different from them and some of the work of modern researchers, for example, M. M. Rakova, author of the fundamental articles on landscape late XIX - early XX century, included in works on the history of Russian art. From book to book, wander definition, based more on the unilateral consideration Dubovsky through the prism of "Levitan's landscape" than on the original study of the artist's works and their connection with his age. Quite strange, for example, looks the analogy, Cancer is given in "the history of Russian art": "the feeling of immense water spaces and inexorably impending disaster this work ("Silenced") resonates with a later time painting Levitan "eternal rest". Levitan correctly noted that "Silenced" I feel not the author, and the most damage that "not everyone can pass". But the lighting effects, which uses Dubovskoy, the influence of Arkhip Kuindzhi".


If you carefully analyze creativity Dubovsky and Levitan, the analogy, indeed, suggest themselves. Landscape artists worked at the same time and lived time. Even a cursory a number of names of their works speaks for itself. Levitan: "Evening at the plow" (1883), "Spring"(1886), "Evening on the Volga" (1888), "Quiet abode" (1890), "eternal rest"(1894), "Lake", "Russia" (1900). Dubovskoy: "Early spring" (1886), "Hushed"(1890), "On the Volga" (1892), "Outside the monastery" (1893), "Earth" (1894), "homeland"(1904). If impartially compare these works, we will get an objective idea of the creative competition of these two masters. Moreover, the thematic range is much wider from Dubovsky. Dubovskoy was mainly painted landscapes, but there are also numerous paintings and sketches, written in the result of trips abroad to Italy, Switzerland, France, mining and architectural landscapes, magnificent Marina, lets talk about them separately, as the legacy of the largest marine painter. We are talking about the great artist, whose work has long deserved careful study.


A lot of times N. N. Dubovskoy traveled to Western Europe and the Middle East, knew well the classical art of Italy, France, Germany, I was well aware of the latest trends in Western European painting. His writing technique has changed in line with the overall development of Russian painting, but he never unthinkingly did not take what didn't fit his understanding of his own task work.


1899 N. N. Dubovskoy was part of the Board of the Association of the Wanderers, has become one of the most influential leaders of the Wanderers. Unlike the strong-willed I. N. Archaeology and N.. Yaroshenko, Dubovskoy was a man of soft and gentle, probably why he very skillfully played the role of the eternal mediator of the Wanderers older and younger generations. In 1900 Dubovskoy was elected a member of the St. Petersburg Academy of arts, and in 1911 became Professor at the Academy, chief of landscape workshop.


Dubovskoy wrote a total of about 400 paintings and over 1,000 sketches. December 20, 1913, he sent the head of the Novocherkassk Council a statement in which he offered his collection of paintings (70 of 129 works and works of Peredvizhniki) to create in his hometown art Museum. The condition was put one place presented in a specially constructed building. The city Council gratefully accepted the offer and allocated the advance payment for the construction of the Museum. A parcel was selected, and the nephew of the painter V. E. Dubovskoy, who was then the chief architect of Novocherkassk, took charge to put the project together. But the First world war, then the revolution broke out, followed by civil war. Not until the Museum was. In the 1930-ies the question of the necessity of the creation of the Novocherkassk Museum of art raised again, but was prevented by the Great Patriotic war. For many decades there was always some problem preventing the creation of the gallery. After the war a collection of paintings Dubovsky took on temporary custody, the Museum of the history of don Cossacks in Novocherkassk. It is best represented in the works of N. N. Dubovsky, this meeting is one of the most complete in the country. Only here the visitor has the opportunity to rediscover the work of this outstanding master of Russian landscapes, enjoy the glitz and glamour of his paintings. In February 1968, it was decided the USSR Academy of arts with the recommendation to create a "Novocherkassk Museum of fine arts named after N. N. Dubovsky". But still everything remained as it was. The Museum there. "Decades of follow each other. Some of the paintings of N. N. Dubovskoy are on display in the Museum of the Cossacks, and the rest continue to languish in the vaults..."


Academician of painting Nikolay Nikanorovich Dubovskoy died in revolutionary Petrograd, February 28, 1918, from heart failure. He was buried at the Smolensk Orthodox cemetery near the chapel of SV. Xenia Of St. Petersburg.

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