France • 1832−1883

Innovative painting by Manet was viciously attacked critics, who considered the artist's a rebel in art. In the late 1860s, Manet became friendly with E. Degas, C. Monet, O. Renoir and passed to the plein air painting; deaf and dense tone with a predominance of dark colors changed more light and free painting ("In the boat", 1874). The main theme of works by Manet scene of the Parisian life ("Nana", 1877; In the pub Papa, Lotwil", 1879). In the large and deep his work "Bar "Folies Bergeres" (1881 to 1882) shows the illusion and the illusion of happiness among the glittering festive fun. Creativity Manet breathed new life in the French art of the 19th century and in many respects defined the main ways of the further artistic quest.

Edouard Manet was born in Paris, in a rich bourgeois family. His parents hoped that their son would receive a respectable legal education. But Manet tried to become a sailor (and even committed as a young trip in Rio de Janeiro). Eventually defeated his passion for art. For six years (1850-1856) Manet visited the Studio of the famous historical painter Volume couture, with whom the young artist was soon formed a very tense relationship. It was difficult to find anything more opposite than the desire Manet to the living and contemporary art and academic, stillborn "historicism" couture. However, in the Atelier couture, demanding from their students study the old masters, Manet joined the classical heritage. He diligently visits the Louvre, and after retiring from couture is touring museums Holland, Italy, Germany and Austria. Objects of worship - Titian and Tintoretto, Rembrandt and Hals, Poussin, Delacroix, Ingres, but before all the great Spanish Velazquez and Goya. Although Manet first came to Spain only in 1865, his early work goes under the sign of Spanish painting. In the early 60-ies of the artist sometimes close "tells" in his works the works of Spanish artists, and during the tour in Paris Madrid ballet company (1862) wrote a series of paintings from live Spanish models ("Lola from Valencia", "Guitarist", "Spanish ballet").


However, despite its reputation as the "Paris of the Spaniard and roll with the other old masters, Manet from the beginning acts as an artist with a distinctive vision, inextricably linked with the artistic quest of his time. So, one of the earliest of his works - "absinth drinker" (1859)-seems to be a direct illustration of the "Flowers of evil" Baudelaire. The first truly large-scale work Manet was "Breakfast on the grass" (1862). The composition of the painting was inspired by the picture Rafa-ale and the images of the "Concert" Giorgione. Manet was talking to his friend, the journalist A. Proust: "When I was in the Studio, I copied Giorgione, naked woman with musicians. But I have everything will be different - I will take the stage on the air, will surround her transparent atmosphere, and people such as we see them today."


Open roll with the old painting emphasized the novelty of the art of Manet. In his painting we see the living Parisians 60-ies of the last century, relaxed situated on the place of the classic characters. Audiences and critics were shocked by calling realism artist, ignoring them generally accepted academic canons of beauty, as well as the usual story "completeness" of the image. Heroes of mana externally are not associated surface plot relations, but United by one psychological and poetic atmosphere, permeated by the General feeling of the mystery of life. In looking directly at the viewer the sight of a naked woman (artist wrote it with your favourite model Quiz Meran) there is a daring spontaneity, and a deep reverie. This standing over time, the poetry and depth of the images made by Manet, with all its innovation, with the great masters of the past. It's the same in the next century will be inspired Picasso to create variations on the theme of "Breakfast on the grass"... In the style of the painting are connected by two characteristic Manet trends - the desire to open air and to more material and plastic picturesque manner. If the landscape is painted a light, shining as if washed out colors, shapes and wonderful still life are exquisite harmony more condensed and contrasting tones. Starting with Breakfast on the grass", rejected the official "Beauty" and exhibited in the newly opened "Salon Les Miserables", began irreconcilable conflict mane official art. This conflict escalated after creation in 1863 the famous Olympia*.


Just as in the previous canvas, the artist "updated" in "Olympia" traditional motives, but made it even more shocking. Instead of the classic Venus or romantic odalisques he, in the words of one critic of the time, "depicted a naked woman on untidy bed and near it a colored woman with a bouquet of flowers and a black cat with arched back". Between these characters even less direct relationship than that between figures "Breakfast", but their combination is born solid and rich associations image, something consonant with the images of the poetry of Baudelaire. As Nude in "Breakfast", "Olympia" (a model for it was the same Quiz Meran) looks at us, as if symbolizing the mysterious and the victorious power of the art of Manet. In the picturesque against "Olympia" is one of the peaks of the artist. In its subtle and bold color harmony Express the high scenic culture Manet, absorbing in themselves the experience of masters of the past. However, the French artist made this experience not only modern energy and conciseness, but something new. It generalizes the form, neglects the chiaroscuro and the third dimension (Courbet not accidentally compared the "Olympia" with "playing cards"), is seeking a special color intensity. In the end, the picture is not only acquires the completeness of style, but it has become, in large degree, from the Renaissance "window into the world" poetry "the way of the world." In the artistic principles of "Olympia" were largely the origins of all subsequent European art, and "hydroabrasive" female figure right anticipated images Gauguin. Other major works by Manet 60-ies - "Breakfast in the Studio" (1868), and the Balcony (1869), which was a kind of modern reinterpretation of paintings by Goya.


However, the creation Manet is not confined to the creation of large software compositions. Artist not casually called "the painter of modern life". "Eye mane wrote : Proust was endowed with remarkable insight, Paris did not know the idler, which would have removed as many observations from their sightseeing", Manet painted Parisian streets and cafes, horse racing at Longchamp, river scenes in Orientale and Marina, naked women for "toilet"wonderful portraits and still lifes. It was this desire to make a piece of art itself, the surrounding reality and rallied around the artist's young innovators, which was soon adopted the name of the Impressionists. A place of regular meetings Manet and his friends became cafe Gerba in the heart of Paris, hence the original name of the band - "matinalsa". But although Edouard Manet largely contributed to the birth of impressionism, he is not merged with this movement. His persistent unwillingness to participate in the impressionist exhibitions, outside of the official Salon, was due not only aristocratic prejudices, but also deeper causes greater ties with tradition, higher internal resistance of images that have Edouard Manet seem to be, for all their spontaneous vitality, snatched from the stream of time. However, in 70th years the artist was strongly influenced by Claude Monet and Renoir, which is manifested, in particular, in his later, unsurpassed scenic skill women's portraits and still lifes. A kind of summary of the impressionist period and all creative Manet was created the painting "Bar at the Folies Bergeres.


This picture is genuine phantasmagoria of light and color. Brush Manet fluid passes the sparkle of crystal, gentle glow of flowers and lace, heavy Genie fruits, refined combinations violet-black, pink, orange, yellow, silver-purple - and reflections, and the reflections in the mirror, lend enchanting nature. But in the center of everything - captivating image of the girl, in which Manet, as always, makes us feel the mysterious depths of the human person. Using the mirror reflection (reception, probably borrowed from "Menin" Velasquez) artist bisect his image - introduces it to the current, past life and puts over time. In this duality, the unique combination of immediate and eternal, and was one of the main features of the whole art of Manet.


In the late period of his work Amane departs from impressionism and returns to its original style. In the mid-1870s enthusiastically working with pastels, which helped him to use the achievements of the Impressionists in the analysis of color, while maintaining their own views on the balance between shape and volume ("Woman, podvyaznaya stocking", 1880, the Meeting Nansen, Copenhagen). Work Amane pastel contributed to the softening of his painting style, even in cases when he described not poetic images, inspired by the works of contemporary writers ("Nana", 1877, Kunsthalle, Hamburg; "Papa, Lotwil", 1879, the Museum, Turin). The peak of creativity Amane is his famous painting "Bar at the Folies Bergeres (1882, the Gallery of the Institute of Warburg and Courtauld, London), which represents a synthesis of temporariness, insecurity, and transience, characteristic of impressionism, and permanence, stability and inviolability inherent in classic direction in the art. Clear the foreground of the picture is contrasted rear - an obscure and almost fantastic mirror reflection. This work can be considered software in the works Amane as it reflects his favorite themes: still life, portrait, various lighting effects, the movement of the crowd.


Official recognition Amane received in 1882, when he was awarded the Legion of Honor - the main award of France.

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