The state-owned Residenzgalerie provides a cross-section of painting from the 16th to the 19th centuries.
A new collection was proposed shortly after the First World War by a group of Salzburg artists, and the Residenzgalerie was opened in 1923.
The centrepiece of the Residenzgalerie is the Czernin Collection. Its paintings by 17th-century artists are principally Dutch, but also Italian, Spanish and French. Assembled between 1800 and 1845, the collection's original owner was Count Johann Rudolf Czernin.