The Andrei Rublev Museum was established by order of the government, signed on December 10, 1947. The initiator of the museum was Pyotr Dmitrievich Baranovsky (1892-1984), a well-known restorer architect, ascetic in preserving the ancient Russian artistic heritage.
The creation of a new museum was supposed to save the architectural ensemble of the Spaso-Andronikov Monastery from destruction, within the walls of which, as Baranovsky established, the great icon painter Andrei Rublev created and buried. This discovery made it possible to declare the territory of the monastery "a historical and architectural reserve named after the Russian artist Andrei Rublev." The foundation of the museum was dedicated to the celebration of the 800th anniversary of Moscow.