Russia • 1862−1930

In the period from 1877 in 1883 and from 1886 to 1888, he studied at the Moscow school of painting, sculpture and architecture. In addition, from 1884 to 1886, he studied at St. Petersburg art Academy (Studio bpts Villevalde).

In 1891 Arkhipov became a member of the Association of traveling art exhibitions.

In 1896 and 1912, the artist visited France, Germany and Italy.

In 1898 he received the title of academician, the full member Academy of arts).

In 1904 he became one of the founders of the "Union of Russian artists".

1924 - the member of Association of artists of revolutionary Russia.

1927 - the people's artist of the RSFSR.

Abram Efimovich Arkhipov entered the history of Russian art of the late XIX-early XX century as an artist subtle and poetic talent, who dedicated his work Russian village, the peasant theme. He was born on 15 August 1862 in one of the remotest villages of the Ryazan province in a poor peasant family. For the first time the boy began to draw in the local school. Parents are encouraged classes of the son, and in 1876, difficult to raise the funds, sent him to study at the Moscow School of painting, sculpture and architecture. With him at that time was engaged A. Ryabushkin, N. Kasatkin, M. Nesterov. Soul School and favorite Professor was C. G. Perov, taught E. Makovsky, V. D. Polenov, A. K. Savrasov.


Arkhipov studied with great perseverance. His works received awards at exhibitions. Already on the third year of the withdrawal of the young artist, performs the song "Playing fid", and the beginning of the 80-ies paints: "In a junk shop" (1882, GTG), "the Drunkard" (1883, state Tretyakov gallery) and "Shynok" (1883, state Tretyakov gallery). Lessons Perov, calling on artists to portray the truth of life, not afraid of the dark sides, not in vain. Arkhipov starts his career as a genre artist of the obvious successor and follower of his teacher.


In 1883, after seven years of study in College, Arkhipov decided to continue teaching in the Academy of arts. However, the academic teaching system disappointed him. Although picturesque sketch "Sitter, falling from the saddle" and the drawings were recognized as a model and communicated to the permanent storage in an Academic Museum, Arkhipov left the Academy and returned to Moscow College. After the death Perov he is engaged in Polenov whose art, full of light, joyous sensation of life, also had an impact on the creativity Arkhipova.


One of the serious work that sums up apprenticeship period, was a picture of a "Girlfriend"or "visiting the sick" (1885, state Tretyakov gallery). It depicts the artist's mother. Sadly head down, staring into space, setting the sick woman in dark miserable hut on the bed with straw bedding. Next to her, with the same sad extinct eyes perched neighbor, who came to visit the sick. The poses of the two women, tired, sad faces, each speaks of obedience, of hopelessness and bezotvetnoi. Only sunlight that breaks into the open door, reminding about the existing somewhere joy and beauty. In this work - a quiet sadness and deep compassion for human grief.


In 1888 Arkhipov together with his friends from School went on a trip along the Volga. They stopped in villages, many painted, wrote essays. Also there was born the idea of small pictures "On the Volga" (1889, state Russian Museum), the first time the artist was trying to achieve organic combination of genre scenes and lyrical landscape.


Two years Arkhipov was accepted as an active member of the Association of traveling exhibitions. In the same year appeared one of the most famous of his paintings, "On the river Oka" (state Tretyakov gallery), which shows a floating barge tired, immersed in her thoughts peasants. The contents of the picture turns of plot boundaries. It is wider, deeper, deeper. This is a story about people who are capable of so much to bear, while maintaining the stability and peace of the fortress. This statement poetry of Russian nature, with blue distances, the spring floods of the rivers, streams of sunlight. The colouring, based on the combination of soft muted colors, corresponds to the General mood of the work. Changed painting style Arkhipova. From the robust and vypechennoe the early works of the artist comes to wide free, temperamental letter.


"The whole picture is painted directly at the sun, - informed about the canvas centuries Stasov, - it feels right for each shadow and brilliance around the wonderful overall impression; sitting on the barge people, four women - simply gorgeous on infinitely true stances in which they are idle, tired and sad silently sit on their bales".


In the 90-ies Arkhipov painted mainly in the air, he brought his characters of the little stuffy workshops and rooms on the wide open spaces of the Volga, open, sunlit squares, solenye lawn and roads. Spring energy emanates from the canvases "the Ice passed" (1895, Ryazan regional art Museum). Freed from the ice of the river, breaking the shackles of winter. This celebration of the awakened nature came to see the inhabitants of the surrounding villages - the elderly, women, children. First rays of the sun poured all around. People in the works of the artist are inseparably linked with nature. They are thinking and feeling as if reflected through the landscape in which, as in Russian folk tales, folk songs, is an epic breadth and scope, lyrical sincerity and delicate poetry.


Further Arkhipov creates and works, permeated dramatic content. The first of them - "By stages" (1893, state Tretyakov gallery), dedicated to new works of the artist to the theme of tragic fate of the peasants, ruined and impoverished, emaciated poverty and bestellen. Humble, silent, they patiently bear their crests picture "of Podesiti on ironworks" (1896, state Tretyakov gallery), the artist touched on one of the important themes of the XIX century: about the bitter fate of a Russian woman. Portraying tourists from the exhausting work of women, Arkhipov pays great attention to the transfer of the surrounding. Creeping black smoke, sun-scorched land, low wooden housing help to imagine the terrible conditions in which from dawn to dusk employed workers.


In pictures Arkhipova almost never acute situations or action. The basic idea is revealed through the environment, the environment in which the events occur. Such a decision genre paintings have become typical of the masters of the late XIX century. Among the most famous and most significant works Arkhipova is painting "the laundress", which exists in two versions (1899, RM; 1901, state Tretyakov gallery).


In early 1900-ies appear Northern landscapes Arkhipova. There appears majestic nature, with muted colors, original wooden architecture, low houses, crowding on the banks, deserted wooded Islands, huge boulders on the sea. It is with great passion to paintings Northern village (1902, GTG), "the Boat pier in the North" (1903, GTG), "the North" (1912, state Tretyakov gallery). In grayish, strict scheme of these paintings were made amazing color wealth. Flavor of their solemn and sonorous.


During these years, Arkhipov creates a unique series of portraits of peasants - women and girls in Nizhny Novgorod and Ryazan provinces. All of them - in the national bright clothes with embroidered handkerchiefs and beads. Portraits, written widely, collectively, temperamental major stroke are decorative, maiorescu color scheme. Favorite become red, intense pink, loud tone.


Much time and effort gives the artist and teaching activities. Starting in 1894 at the Moscow school of painting, sculpture and architecture, Arkhipov and after the October revolution continues to teach. In 1924 he joined the Association of artists of revolutionary Russia. In 1927, in connection with the fortieth anniversary of artistic activity, it, one of the first Soviet painters, was awarded the title of people's artist of the Republic.


Died A. E. Arkhipov in 1930.

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