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Andreevich Favorsky

Known schedule, honored artist of the RSFSR, people's artist of the USSR. He was born in 1886 in Moscow. Studied at the school of K. Yuon, then in Munich: in the private art Academy and art history Department of the philosophical faculty of the University. In 1907 - 1912 - art history Department of the historical-philological faculty of Moscow University. 1920 - 1930 - Professor at the graphic faculty of the VKhUTEMAS - Vhuteina. On SYKE - 1934 - 1935 Executed drawings on plates "Swans", "Milkmaid with cows" (2 versions), "Goats" and the bowl "Doves."

Known primarily as a book designer, xylographs V. A. Favorsky was the Creator works in many types of fine art - a monumental painting (in the techniques of fresco, sgraffito, mosaic), theatrical-decorative painting, sculpture, decorative arts. Inherent in the artist's versatility, qualitatively different from the effervescent artistic versatility of the masters of the XIX and XX centuries, included a fundamental understanding of the theory of art, developed pedagogical system, the actual school Tabor, which without exaggeration can be called the talent congenial artists-thinkers of the Renaissance.

The first skills in drawing Tabor received at home from his mother, nee Sherwood (daughter of the famous architect V. O. Sherwood). Later he attended the private Studio of K. F. Yuon (1903 - 1905) and evening classes in sculpture at the SHPU.

After graduating from high school Tabor in 1905 he entered the University of Munich. Catching up on art history Department of the philosophical faculty, he simultaneously studied at the school sh holloshi and further considered him as his main teacher of art.

Back in 1907, in Moscow, Tabor continued art education in Moscow University and in 1913 he defended his thesis "Giotto and his predecessors." Letters to the "Judgments of Mr. Jerome Kunyara" A. France, made in 1918, brought Tabor fame.

The growing need of the new society in illustrated literature prompted the artist the main direction of creativity. In the 1920s, he created illustrations to the books "the Kremlin. Sverdlovsk hall" (1921), "Egeria" PP Muratov (1921), "little House in Kolomna" Pushkin (1922), "Stories about animals". Tolstoy (1929). The most consistently creative principles of the artist is reflected in the work on "Book of Ruth" (1921). Starting with the cover, title, font, and up to the end of the design follows the idea of the piece, presenting a unified spatial image that does not violate their invasion of the inner life of the text, and passes it to the style, without becoming a pastiche. The style things of Tabor defines as the ratio of the object to the space, filling the product, "creates a world within, constrained by frames or contours, infinitely complex and complete."

In his plastic vision of Tabor detects the proximity to the Byzantine mosaicists, Michelangelo, Vrubel. Tabor combines in one image is not only close at the time of the event, but sometimes fills the space entire epochs. On the frontispiece of "the book of Ruth" to the tree with a sprawling crone, rising to biblical symbolism, bent young woman in the lines of a figure which at the same time and felt the hardness and obedience to his duty, be at the origin of the lineage of David, to plant the tree, topped by a Royal crown.

In a series of prints "the revolution" (1928) all the space covered by the swift movement, a kaleidoscope of events, a pulsating center of which appears the figure of the leader surrounded by supporters; in the portrait of Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1929) rich dramatic background-the personification of reality - intensely gripped the figure of the writer, and the tilt of his head and hard hands Express adamant opposition to external forces.

Already in the early critical articles, devoted to the artist, marked by his special relation to the material, engraving. "Archaic Tabor, wrote in 1923 by A. M. Efros - outlines itself, the age of first maturity of woodcuts. Its region-last decade of the XV century and the German-Dutch soil". Tabor, cleaning wood engraving from a late technical and simulation layers that led to the loss of feeling material (wood), emphasizes the sculptural engravings, likening her relief.

In 1920-30 years, Tabor has taught at the VKhUTEMAS, was head of the Department of woodcuts. In 1923 he was elected rector of the higher art; with his leadership is largely due the prosperity of the institution in those years. Actually with the learning objective was written, the main theoretical work: "lectures on the theory of composition" and the course "Theory of graphs".

In the early 1940s occurred stylistic reorientation in the work of Tabor. The artist, partly forced to reckon with the requirements of the publishers, transformerait formal expression in the subtlety of form handling, the sophisticated technique of the stroke, the psychological depth of images.

Having the opportunity to work on some of the most interesting orders that he was focusing on the holistic design of the book, the connectedness of its parts. In 1950 he creates the most "monumental" his work of this period - executes "the Word about Igor's regiment"; and then illustrates the "Boris Godunov" of A. S. Pushkin (1954-55). The latest work in the field of book graphics - "Little tragedies" by A. Pushkin (1959-61).

For the first time, Tabor was asked to choose a literary work and the format of the publication, which led to an artistic freedom of the artist, which allowed him to compile the best of his early and late work. The book is set emphasized the horizontal line, connecting the four works. All of its elements, according to the artist, serve for the expression of its seriousness, the passion of human emotions, which it is full.

Illustrations for "the Stone guest" can be attributed to the masterpieces of art of the Tabor. Dinner at Laura and the duel scene, located a few pages later, that is, separated by forward movement of literary time, endowed with the inner temporal and spatial correlation. Emphatic static scene with consistent plans explodes the rapid rhythm of the scene of the duel, which combines elements of the previous activity, the present and the upcoming junction. Uncleared table in the Foreground recalls just finished dinner quietly; following plan - lightning duel (as Pushkin) is choppy now; then Laura, turning away from the horror of what is happening, but that fine she would be pressed against the head, don Guana is something that will follow immediately after the duel; and finally, the shadow of the hand and sword hilt don guano, turned into a sinister cross hanging over everything, it is the denouement of the tragedy. So in the engravings of the artist "time is included in the composition, and the composition becomes complex and multifaceted".

Tabor in life, in social activities, despite the many difficult aspects associated with the changing views of government on the arts, a number of tragedies personal plan (in the WWII, he lost both sons), remained true to his principles. He took and official recognition of the dignity of a wise man (1962 Tabor became a laureate of the Lenin prize in 1963 he was awarded the title of people's artist of the USSR). Once the question your student about the future of Soviet art Tabor said in the gospel: "it is Necessary: God of gods, and Caesar, and added: - you only Need to have the space... Everything we do, something is".

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