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David
Ivanovich Grimm

Russia 
1823−1898
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1823-3-22 - 1898-11

An auditor student at the Academy of fine arts from 1842 to 1848 he Received medals: in 1843 – 2 silver; in 1845 – 1 and 2 silver; in 1846 – 2 gold for the program: "the Project of the convent"; in 1848 – 1 gold for the "project of the Church." In 1846 – the title of the artist XIV class; in 1848 left a pensioner of the Academy of arts and sent to Georgia. In 1850, he was sent abroad at government expense. In 1855, the title of academician. In 1859 appointed to the Academy of fine arts teacher of the "special law on the construction part". In 1860, the title of Professor for the "Project of the Church in memory of the baptism of St. Vladimir in Chersonesus Tavrichesky". From 1888 to 1892 rector of architecture Academy of fine arts. 1892 – honorary member of the Academy of arts; in the same year conferred the title of architect of the Imperial court. Some of his work: monument to the Emperor Peter I in Zhytomyr; the chapel on the spot death of Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich in nice; the Church in Geneva reformed Church in St. Petersburg; Embassy Church in Copenhagen, a monument of Fame in St. Petersburg; the Church at Bethlehem; the Cathedral in Tiflis.

(Kondakov)

Famous architect and artist David Grimm was born on March 22 (April 4), 1823 in Saint-Petersburg. Came from a German family. His childhood and youth in Russia, in St. Petersburg, where he was educated at the German school of St. Peter. D. Grimm graduated in 1841, after which he entered the Imperial Academy of arts. While still in the Academy, A. P. Bryullov, David Grimm showed brilliant artistic talent and his achievements in painting and architecture received three silver medals (1843 and 1845). He was released from the Academy in 1848, with the title of artist of the 14th class, and a small gold medal, awarded to him for the drawn contest "Project of the convent". Two years later, participating in the new competition, he was awarded big gold medal for the program "the building Project for the fair."

In 1849, D. I. Grimm went in the Transcaucasian region for the study of the churches of Georgia and Armenia. After about three years, then he moved through Asia Minor, Turkey and Greece to Western Europe. Traveling in Europe as a pensioner of the Academy of arts, he is everywhere studied architectural landmarks. In five years of travelling he visited Italy, Spain, England, Holland. Having returned to Russia in 1855, for the drawings and paintings made in the Caucasus and European countries, he received the title of academician. After his travels in the Transcaucasian region D. I. Grimm published with the support of government, labor under the title of "monuments of the Christian architecture in Georgia and Armenia" (St. Petersburg, 1866) that is very important for the history of art. In the same 1855 Grimm were identified in the Department's consideration of projects and budgets and received the rank of titular counselor, and in 1861 - court counselor. In 1860 he became Professor at the Academy of arts. Almost thirty-five years of D. I. Grimm gave pedagogical work within the walls of the St. Petersburg Academy. From 1859 to 1887 he was a teacher, and in 1888 was appointed her rector of architecture and held this post until 1892.

Apart from the Academy, D. I. Grimm in 1857-1863 years taught at the Construction school of Ministry of Railways (Institute of civil engineers) in 1865-1871 was the architect of the Department of water communications, in 1867 a member of the architectural-technical and military-engineering committees of the city Council of Petersburg, 1892, was the chief architect of the Imperial court. In the 1870-ies of the D. I. Grimm was a member of the editorial Board of the journal "Zodchiy", as well as a founding member (since 1864), foreman (1870), and finally chair (1888-1890) St. Petersburg society of architects, and in 1890 - its Honorary member. Teaching and service activities do not interfere with the Grimm to apply their knowledge to solve practical construction problems.

As they prepared projects, partly under his personal leadership, built a monument to Peter I in Zhytomyr (1858); the Orthodox Cathedral of St. Vladimir in Chersonesos Tauride, near Sevastopol (1858; the draft of this temple brought the artist the title of Professor); the Church of St. Olga at the dacha of Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich near Strelna (1861-1863); the German Reformed Church and school (1862-1865) in St. Petersburg, the Orthodox Cathedral of the Caucasian army in Tbilisi in memory of the conquest of the Caucasus (1866); the chapel in Strelna (1873); the bell tower at the Church in the estate of the Emperor Livadia in the Crimea (1887); the burial vault of Grand Dukes in the Peter and Paul fortress in St. Petersburg (1896-1908); the Lutheran Church on the island Mele; the monument of Glory in St. Petersburg (1884-1885); the architectural part of the monument of Catherine II (1872) in St. Petersburg, the Orthodox Church in many cities of Europe.

In 1861 the court office of Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich instructed the Professor of architecture David Ivanovich Grimm to develop the project and build the Church of the Holy Princess Olga on the territory of Mikhaylovsky Park. The Church was built in old Russian style, and not in the "Ampir" style, popular in the mid-nineteenth century. The appeal of the architect to the national forms was not only influenced by the success of historical science and the romantic fascination with antiquity. Has been a direct incarnation of one of the most urgent problems of the time - people. This problem dictated the motto of the reign of Nicholas I, father of Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich: "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality". The architect D. I. Grimm did not imitate the ancient Church building, and have created a very beautiful new Russian Church.

The Church in mykhailivka is built of red brick. The main volume is surrounded by an open arched gallery supported by columns of light from the Bremen Sandstone. The gallery is elevated on a low basement and closed from two sides of the altar with small chapels. In the South-Eastern chapel was the sacristy, in the North-West room of the Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolaevich and Olga Feodorovna. The altar of the Church of St. Olga is located in the North-East respectively of the line the cliff of the Gulf of Finland.

D. I. Grimm not only designed the Church of St Princess Olga, but also oversaw all construction activities. By agreement of the court office of Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich with the Grimm in 1861 was to build a Church by the fall of 1863. But due to lack of bricks with the sign of the brick factory (the stamp on the bricks zkz) half brick was delivered later from St. Petersburg. On the orders of Mikhail Nikolayevich surrender of the Church was postponed until the summer of 1864. September 6, 1864, the Church was inspected and accepted by the Commission, which was the architects Karl Ziegler and Edward Gan. They signed the act of acceptance of the Church and made an inventory, now stored in the Russian state historical archive. Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolaevich was awarded the D. I. Grimm for the construction of the Church, diamond ring with ruby. The Church was consecrated in honor of the Holy Princess Olga, the patron Saint of his beloved wife of Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich, - Olga Fyodorovna.

Another interesting construction of the architect D. I. Grimm was a German Reformed Church in St. Petersburg. In 1862 a Church was built on empty land and on the shore of the Sink. Earlier on this site housed a warehouse of materials in the construction of the post office building. Until that time, the German community used the Church at Bolshaya Konyushennaya street together with the French. The French were considered the founders of the reformed community therefore had a right to come first to the Church. Often they were delayed, that resented the pedantic Germans. Over time the decision was made to build a new Church for the German reformed congregation.

The construction of the Church was carried out in the years 1862-1865. The building project belongs to Harald A. boss, supervised the construction works David Ivanovich Grimm. The facades of the buildings were made of red brick without plaster. The Church was crowned by a high bell tower with narrow Windows. On the ground floor of the Church was a school and the pastor, the second double-height temple.

However, this construction of D. I. Grimm is not very lucky. In 1872 the Church was destroyed by fire. The restoration of the building was supervised by Karl Karlovich, REHAU, according to his design was the increased height of the bell tower and raised the ceiling. But after the revolution, in 1929, the building was rebuilt by the project of P. M. Grinberg, G. S. Rica. The top of the tower were cut, appeared on the façade with balconies and sculpture. Here is located House of culture and technology communication workers, later renamed the Palace. The Palace worked as the cinema, clubs, library... still among the residents of St. Petersburg this building on Bolshaya Morskaya str., 58 known as the Palace of communications workers.

In 1872-1873 years under the leadership of a talented architect D. I. Grimm was completely rebuilt building of the Manege in St. Petersburg. Completely been replaced by the overlap, in all areas and installed new heaters. Inside, in the Central part of the southern wall of the building appears a projection to accommodate an Imperial box. On the southern and Northern facades along the outer side walls in the piers between the Windows have symmetrical paired pilasters. To the Western end facade was added to the new front lobby of the arena. On the pediment of the main facade of the building appear new decorative statues. In the tympanums of the pediments of the Western and Eastern facades were made of the new bas-reliefs with the image of equestrian competitions of ancient heroes by sculptor D. Jensen.

In 1876 the architect D. I. Grimm has developed the project of construction of the Orthodox St. Nicholas Church, the famous Brest fortress. The decision on construction of the Brest-Litovsk citadel to strengthen the Western borders of Russia was made by Nicholas I in 1832. Excavation work began in 1833, the construction of fortifications - in the summer of 1836, and in April 1842 the construction of the Brest fortress was completed on the construction was raised Russian flag and fortress entered into force for the fortresses of the Russian Empire. After a few years in the Central part of the fortress decided to build a temple, a project which has developed D. I. Grimm. The construction of the Church, the painting, interior, utensils cost the Treasury about 300 thousand gold coins. A rich altar, interior columns, lots of Windows, wall painting in the Romanesque style made him one of the most beautiful temples built in the center of Europe. Cathedral during visits to the fortress was repeatedly visited by Russian emperors, most have been here Nicholas I and Alexander III.

Other creations by D. I. Grimm in Saint-Petersburg it is possible to allocate an apartment house on the Moika river embankment, 42 (1867-1870), the Church of the Intercession in the Hunter settlement in Gatchina (1883). His project the Grand Ducal vault (1885-1887) was carried out in the years 1896-1908. Sketches by D. I. Grimm finished the Golden room of the Winter Palace, the library of the Academy of arts. He oversaw the installation of the monument to Empress Catherine II (1862-1873), created a monument in honor of Russian victory in the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878. This monument was a cast iron thirty-meter stele made up of 128 captured gun barrels with a total weight of 170 tons and is topped by a statue of the goddess of victory, Nike. Monument erected in 1885 to the design of D. I. Grimm and under the personal supervision of Emperor Alexander III, was dismantled in 1928. To the 300 anniversary of St. Petersburg in 2003 with the efforts of the masters of the Novolipetsk Metallurgical combine, the monument of military glory was restored by the surviving photographs and drawings, and took his former place at the Izmailovo Avenue in front of the Church of the Holy Trinity.

The name of the architect Grimm's is well known not only in Russia but also in many European cities. David I. built many churches abroad. For example, he was the architect of the first Orthodox Church in Switzerland. In Geneva now stands in all the splendor of the double Church of St. Olga - Holy cross Church (1861-1864), only five-domed. D. I. Grimm designed churches in nice (1865-1866), Lugano (1866), Copenhagen (1882-1884), Jerusalem (1884-1885), as well as in Rome, Kovno, new York and even in Askhabad, where Grimm was the author of the project of an Orthodox Church (1887).

The Church of Mary Magdalene, or more correctly - the Russian Orthodox convent of Gethsemane and the Church of St Mary Magdalene was built (with the filing of Archimandrite Antonin) after a visit to Palestine, the Grand Dukes Sergei and Paul. Then, it was decided to build a temple in memory of his mother, Empress Maria Alexandrovna. Alexander III gave instructions to buy land on the slopes of the mount of olives and vindicated the author of the project became a Professor of the Institute of civil engineers, academician of the Petersburg Academy of arts David Ivanovich Grimm. The architect set out to build something that would be a "business card" of Russia in the Holy Land. He built it in the so-called new Russian style typical of the reign of Alexander III. The seven-headed, miniature on a background of the mount of olives, the beautiful Church with a distinctive onion-domed Moscow and innovative features, blended into the surrounding landscape so that it became a natural part. For the Church of Mary Magdalene in Gethsemane, D. I. Grimm was appointed rector of architecture at the Academy of arts which was held in 1888-1892., and since 1892 has been honorary rector of the Academy.

A great connoisseur of mainly ecclesiastical buildings in the Byzantine style, D. I. Grimm was a knight of the order of Stanislaus 1-th degree and Anna 3rd degree.

Two sons of D. I. Grimm was subsequently rector of the St. Petersburg (Petrograd) University. His son, Herman Davidovich Grimm (1865-1942), also became an architect, a prominent representative of art Nouveau and Neoclassicism. He was the academician of architecture (1895), and then an academician of the Academy of architecture of the USSR (1939). His Central works - the John the Baptist Church on Forest Avenue in St. Petersburg (together. with G. Guo), the building of the memorial Museum of A. V. Suvorov (1901-1904, et al. with A. I. von Gogen), Church of the resurrection at Warsaw station on the embankment of Obvodny canal (1904-1908, et al. with G. G. Goli and A. L. gun), the building of the gymnasium and real schools K. May (1909). In the 1920-30s he worked as an architect for the people's Commissariat of Railways. He died in the besieged Leningrad.

Bright representative of the class "Russian Germans", one of the greatest masters of the "Russian-Byzantine style" of temple architecture, domestic, David Ivanovich Grimm all of his creative life was devoted to my second homeland, Russia, Russian Church architecture. He died in Petersburg on 9 (21) November 1898 and was buried at the Smolensk Lutheran cemetery.

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