Italia • 1504−1570

Biography and information

Italian painter, architect and sculptor, worked in Italy and France.

He studied at Mantua, Giulio Romano, from 1532 he worked at the court of Francis I. One of the largest representatives of the Italian and French mannerism. Participated in painting the Palace of Fontainebleau after the death of his partner of Rosso Fiorentino (1540) led a group of artists who worked in the Royal estate (the so-called "school of Fontainebleau"). This post he held and the following kings, down to Charles IX of Valois. At the end of life engaged in architecture, his works include the unfinished chapel of the Valois at the Abbey of Saint-Denis, which was destroyed in 1719.

(1504, Bologna - 1570, Paris)

Italian painter who worked in France.

Primaticcio studied in Bologna the followers of Raphael Innocenzo da Immola, and Bagnacavallo, and, from 1526, Mantua, Giulio Romano. He is credited with painting the Cabinet of Apollo in the Ducal Palace (figure - Torino, Cor. library) and "Stykovom hall" Palazzo del Te ("the triumph of the Emperor Sigismund", 1530). Primaticcio also experienced the influence of Correggio and Parmigianino.

In 1532 by Giulio Romano sent him instead of himself at Fontainebleau in the service of Francis 1. Primaticcio met Rosso, better known and more highly paid craftsmen. He was assigned the painting of the chambers of the king (1533 and 1535, "History of psyche") is known from a drawing (Paris, Louvre) and copies that allow us to present it stockby decor and frescoes, its elegant symmetry different from the dynamic paintings of Rosso. At the same time, Primaticcio begins painting the presence of the Queen, from which remain only the fireplace (1534-1537). In 1535 he adorns the portico of the Port of Dor, at that time the main entrance to the castle of Fontainebleau ("scenes from the story of Hercules"), and works in Pomona pavilion (in collaboration with Rosso, 1532 - 1535, was not preserved; "Pomona Gardens", drawing - Paris, Louvre). He begins well as the decoration of the lower gallery (1535-1542, painting has not survived, drawings, Paris, Louvre).

The sudden death of Rosso in 1540 favored the artistic career of Primaticcio. 1 Francis sent him to Italy to purchase works of art, especially Antiques. On his return to Fontainebleau he completed work left unfinished Rosso. So, it decorates two rooms in the gallery Francis 1 (paintings have not survived) appeared in the center of the gallery, where he wrote "leased" (figure - Chantilly, musée condé). He then paints the Cabinet of king (1541-1545, painting has not survived, a fireplace is known from the drawings; "Forge of Vulcan", Paris, Louvre), as well as Cabinet doors ("Virtue", drawings, Paris, Louvre and private collection). In those same years, he decorates six songs in the lobby of the Port of Dor (1543-1544). The apartments of the Duchess d ethane (1541-1544), bezobraziya the stairs at the Louis XV and rebuilt in the XIX century, still retained a portion of its magnificent décor, where large stykovye figures rhythmically alternate with frescoes, executed at the magnificent drawings (the"Masquerade at Persepolis", Paris, Louvre). Then Primaticcio's painting a grotto in the Pine garden scenes, presented in perspective (1543, "Minerva", "Juno", has not survived, drawings, Paris, Louvre). Then on the first floor of the gallery Francis 1, he gets the room the Bathroom (1541-1547, painting has not survived). One of the pearls of Fontainebleau, which housed the masterpieces of the Royal collection in conjunction with stucco and beautiful songs ("the Story of Callisto", drawings, Paris, Louvre, and British Museum in London).

This activity, interrupted by trips to Italy (1543 and 1546), during which Primaticcio experienced more influence (in particular, the art of Perino del Vaga), facilitated by the work of a whole group of assistants, some of whom were great painters. Primaticcio headed the workshop with copies of antiquities, brought from Italy, and a Studio tapestries ("the Curtains of the gallery Francis 1", Vienna Museum of art history). At this time Primaticcio was at the peak of his fame. He was the most influential artist of those years, a Valet of the king, and the 1544 - the Abbot of the monastery of St. Martin near Troyes. However, the king's death in 1547 and the appointment of Filiberto delarme's surintendant Cor. buildings have slightly reduced his power. Death or the departure of his assistants led the artist to a new understanding of the decor, which excludes now stykovye elements. In 1541 Primaticcio began the paintings of the gallery of Ulysses (not preserved) on which he worked almost until his death. He created 58 tracks on the walls and on the vault, divided into 15 bays, decorated with grotesques, was a picture of a scene in bold angles, is famous for many splendid drawings and engravings. In 1552-1556 Primaticcio creates paintings on mythological subjects in the Ballroom of the Palace; in this work he was helped by Niccolo del abbate, who recently arrived in Fontainebleau, and became his constant companion.

Primaticcio was also performed and private commissions: paintings for the cardinal Ippolito of Ferrara (1548), in the chapel of Guise (figures - Paris, Louvre; Chantilly, musée condé, etc.). Under his leadership, Germain Pilon and his workshop created a sculpture (tomb of Henry II, the Saint-Denis Cathedral). In Fontainebleau, there are also some architectural work of Primaticcio. He arranged holidays and "exit" (the series of paintings "masquerade Stockholm", Stockholm, NAT. Museum) and made drawings for the enamels. Among the later works of the artist should name the two songs written for the apartments of the Duchess d ethane (1570), and a new painting in the king's Palace (not preserved; stories were taken from the "Iliad"; the preparatory drawings, Paris, Louvre; copies also known belly and van Tulden). All these bands were created by them, together with Niccolo del abbate. Loaded orders Primaticcio few he wrote himself: among the few paintings attributed to him can be called "SV. Family" (Saint-Petersburg, GOS. The Hermitage), "Odysseus and Penelope" (Toledo, Ohio, Museum of art), and "Abduction of Helen" (at Barnard Caste, the Bowes Museum) was probably written by the students. About the authorship of "Andromache Fainting" (Providence, Rhode island, Museum) it is difficult to judge due to the poor condition of the painting.

Many of the paintings of Primaticcio was not preserved, others are in bad condition, but thanks to the numerous drawings (Paris, Louvre; Vienna, Albertina; Stockholm, NAT. Museum), executed in ink, watercolour or sanguine, we know the characteristic of his manners, subtle and academic, and his poetics. The art of Primaticcio, is widely known thanks to the engravings (executed, in particular, the Master L. D.), has had a decisive influence on the development of French painting, especially in the eighteenth century.