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Umberto Boccioni
Umberto
 Boccioni
Italia 1882−1916
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Umberto Boccioni was born in Reggio di Calabria (South of Italy) on 19 October 1882 in the family of an official. He received his artistic education in Rome, where he studied from 1898 to 1902. At the same time studied the technique of pointillism from Giacomo Balla. In late 1906 – early 1907 attended drawing courses at the Academy of fine arts in Venice.

At the beginning of creation, his style was close to that of verismo. Subsequently, Humberto was influenced by cubism. Special influence on Boccioni had Filippo Marinetti – the founder and theoretician of futurism in European literature. Boccioni adapted the ideas of Filippo Marinetti to the visual art, releasing in 1910 "Technical Manifesto of futurist painting". In the same year, Boccioni became the head and theoretician of futurism in Italian art.

Italian painter and sculptor. In 1901, Boccioni, Severini, together with, is engaged in the workshop of John. Scores in Rome, had a great influence on his work. After a stay in Paris in 1906, he lives in Milan. In the series "the Suburbs" (1908-1910), dedicated to social topics and made in the style of harsh realism, with asymmetrical composition and the incredible Vista, the artist expresses the principles of aesthetics Points and Italian divisionism. Gradually the place imitating verismo early work comes to the art of mental influence, where particular importance of social symbolism ("Rising city", 1911, new York, Museum of modern art) and over-accented the emotional analysis ("Mourning", 1910, new York, collection of M. Schulz; famous series "state of mind", 1911 - "Farewell", Milan, Gal. contemporary art, "Those who leave", ibid, "Those who remain", ibid.). Developing your first quest in the field of divisionism, Boccioni achieves dynamic effects, already close to the concepts of the futurists ("Brawl in the gallery", 1910, Milan, Pinacoteca Brera). In 1910 he met with the poet Marinetti and artists, carrà and Russolo. From these meetings is born of futurism. In the same year, Boccioni writes "the Manifesto of artists-futurists" and then "technology Manifesto of futuristic painting". Since then, he arranges exhibitions in European capitals and cooperated in the magazine "Lacerba". The sculpture Manifesto (1912) he sets out in his poetics. Boccioni was the most active participant and the most important representative of the futurist movement. In one of his works R. Longo stresses that the problem Boccioni's plastic dynamism, the principle of futurist poetics was "the attainment dyed, vibrating sputtered, consisting of planes of atoms." His first futuristic artworks in painting and sculpture date from 1911 ("laughter", new York, Museum of modern art). After the new stay in Paris (1911-1912), together with Severini and Marinetti, Boccioni working on the fundamental problem of the aesthetics of futuristic design dynamic forms based on the concepts of "simultaneity, i.e." and "lines of force". He develops his views in the literature and such films as "Matter" (1912, Milan, private collection), (1912, Milan, Pinacoteca Brera), "the charge of the lancers" (1915) or in a series of dynamic compositions ("the Dynamism of the human body", 1913, Milan, Gal. of contemporary art). In these works the artist raises the problem of the relationship between futurism and cubism, which tries to resolve by dynamic the interpretation of the volumes. His later work (a series of gouaches and drawings, 1912-1913; "Portrait of Ferruccio Busoni", 1916, Rome, Gal. of modern art) shows a clear return of Boccioni to the art of cézanne. Boccioni Participated in all the futurist exhibitions. Immediately after the artist's death was held a large retrospective exhibition of his work. In 1966 at the Venice Biennale was represented by paintings and sculptural works by Boccioni, on display at Recode-Calabria - his graphic work. Boccioni's works presented in new York (Museum of modern art), Milan (Gal.of contemporary art), Rome, and in private collections in USA and Italy. In 1982-1983 in Milan (Palazzo Reale) held a regular exhibition of his works.

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