Along with monotypy, lithography belongs to the group of flat printing techniques, but this is where their similarities seem to end. Lithography appeared in 1796 or 1798, thanks to Johann Alois Senefelder, a typographer from Munich. Initially, they took an imprint from a drawing on a stone slab, usually limestone, which gave the name for the method (ancient Greek λίθος “stone” + γράφω “I write, draw”). Nowadays, instead of lithographic stone, zinc or aluminum plates are used, which are easier to process. Read more(fr. graver — "cut") is a type of graphic image created by printing. The prints are obtained by applying images from a board to paper, each print is an exclusive work. The art of engraving includes the following types:
— linocut is a protruding image created by applying paint to linoleum up to 5 mm thick followed by imprinting on paper. Allows creating large-scale artwork with clear contrasts of white and black.
— woodcut is the oldest type of engraving, which became widespread in the Far East in the 7th century. It suggests making impressions from a wooden board. Before the invention of this type of engraving, stones were used as a surface for applying paint.
— copperplate print is engraving on a copper plate. Known from the first half of the 15th century. The drawing is applied to the metal with sharp incisors, then the fresh furrows are filled with paint by means of a roller. The background is cleaned of ink and the resulting pattern is imprinted on paper.
— etching (or French eau-forte — "strong water") is engraving on metal, invented in the 16th century. The image is first scratched onto a metal plate using a needle. Acids are applied to the depressions of individual fragments, after which they are filled with paint and a print is created on damp paper using a special machine.
The first known etched boards date from the early 16th century. Etching (fr. eau-forte — strong water, aquafortis, nitric acid) is the main technique of gravure printing easel graphics, which suggests the image to be etched with acid on the surface of a metal plate. From a technological aspect, etching is the opposite of a carving. Read morevarieties include dotted line, dry point, mezzotinto, aquantine, reserve and soft varnish. They are defined by how the scratches are applied to the metal.
— engraving on cardboard is the most technologically accessible form of obtaining a graphic image through print. The picture is created by applying parts cut from cardboard and covered with paint to paper.
— seriography (lat. serikus — "silk") is a method of obtaining multiple prints of one good quality print using silk mesh.