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Генрих
Ипполитович Семирадский

Russia 
1843−1902
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Genrikh Ippolitovich Siemiradzki (24 October 1843, Novo-Belgorod (now Pechenegi), Kharkiv province — August 23, 1902, Strzalkowo, Petrakovskaya province) – Polish-Russian artist, one of the most prominent and outstanding representatives of academia. The creative life of Henry Semiradsky came in the period of radical changes in the artistic life of Russia and European countries. A successful, bright, talented painter Siemiradzki primarily known for his monumental works on the history of Rome and Greece, as well as landscapes and portraits. Worked on painting the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. Despite sharp criticism of Russian art in Europe, the talent Semiradsky was recognized everywhere; the artist had academic titles not only St. Petersburg Academy of arts, but also of the Academies of painting in Berlin, Rome, Stockholm, Turin, and the French Academy of fine arts.

Features artist Henry Semiradsky: Despite the fact that in the second half of the XIX century the fine arts were actively developed in various directions, Henry Siemiradzki was – and throughout life remained a proponent of academic classicism. Peredvizhnik scolded his approaches to composition and choice of themes, the Impressionists called it academic techniques "risen from the grave Ghost" and Pavel Tretyakov fundamentally bought Siemiradzki paintings for his collection. Contrary to the criticism of art, paintings Semiradsky almost always enthusiastically accepted by the public. His favorite subjects were scenes from ancient history and early Christianity; the artist gravitated to the monumental diversity of tracks, the game of colors and chiaroscuro.

The most famous picture of Henry Semiradsky: "The confidence of Alexander the great to the doctor Philip during a serious illness", "Christ and the sinner", "The Roman Orgy brilliant time Caesarism", "Lights of Christianity", "Dance among swords", "The burning of the corpse of the leader of the Rus in Bulgaria", "Trizna vigilantes Svyatoslav after the battle of Dorostolon in 971", "Christ with Martha and Mary", "Phryne at the festival of Poseidon in Elefsina"

Father of Henry Siemiradzki, a Polish nobleman Ippolit Elevtherii Siemiradzki, was a graduate of the military school in Warsaw and has built her career serving the Russian Emperor in the South of Russia; he was a doctor. Mother ran the household and raised three children. The early years of Henry Hector, his brother Michael and sister Maria were in the small town of Novo-Belgorod, Kharkov province. When it was time to give the children on training, the family moved to Kharkov. The children were brought up in the Polish national spirit, and the house Semiradsky was the cultural center of the local Polish intelligentsia. Here, in Kharkov, Henry enrolled in school, and in high school he met his first and main teacher is Dmitry Bezperchy. A student of Karl Bryullov, Bezperchy Semiradskogo instilled a love of painting and became his mentor for many years teaching at the gymnasium, and later, while studying at Kharkov University, where Siemiradzki received at his father's insistence. Defending in 1864 thesis "About the instincts of insects," Henry told her parents about wanting to go to enroll in the Imperial Academy of arts. He arrived in St. Petersburg in the autumn of the same year and passed the entrance exams by enrolling as a volunteer with the payment of 25 rubles per annum.
In may 1865 for his work "massacre of the innocents" Siemiradzki was awarded a Small silver medal – an outstanding achievement for a student of the first year. On the recommendation of the rector Fedor Bruni, Siemiradzki a year later filing a petition for transfer to permanent students. It was very promising: only regular students of the Academy could qualify for a gold medal, and, as a consequence, overseas travel paid by the Academy Board. The Academy Board has granted the petition, what then have never regretted: Henry was completely lost in his work, receiving regular rewards, appreciation and insignia from professors. For the song "Diogenes, smashing the Cup," Siemiradzki was awarded a Small gold medal, which gave him the opportunity to take part in the competition for the Grand gold medal and the coveted fellowship trip to Europe. The theme of the future picture was: "the Confidence of Alexander the great to the doctor Philip during a serious illness." And the artist has coped with this difficult task in the performance work Semiradsky was resolved without too much feeling and pathos, no tragedy and deliberate poses, plastic means and feelings of the protagonists. The Council of the Academy and the public reacted favorably to the picture, November 4, 1870 Semiradskogo was awarded Big gold medal and the title of class artist of the first degree. Today the painting is kept in the National art Museum of Belarus.
Despite a lot of paperwork and nerodnye in the past exams, the Council of the Academy approved pensioner's trip for six years, and in the late summer of 1871 Henri semiradzki started his journey, first visiting Krakow Poland, paying tribute to one of the greatest Polish cities, and after making a stopover in Munich. Here he began work on the painting "Roman Orgy brilliant time Caesarism", the plot of which was taken from the novel "Satyricon" of Gaius Petronius. In the picture the first time sounded the theme of theatrical performances which will be one of the most significant components of all the creative ways the artist. Shown to the local audience, the picture was well received, and after the exhibition in St. Petersburg it was acquired by the Grand Duke Vladimir. Waited in front of Italy.

In April 1872 Siemiradzki has arrived in Florence, where he rented a workshop, looking forward to fruitful work. However, the eruption of the volcano Vesuvius made its changes – Henry went to Naples to look at a rare manifestation of natural forces, then was Pompeii, Capri and Rome. Having met in Rome a lot of friends, the artist decided to move and rented a house on the via Sistina. As recalled later, the relatives of the artist, as soon as he became acquainted with Rome, everything else ceased to exist for him. This was his habitat, favorite streets and scenery, which he did not get tired to admire throughout life.
Immersed in the artistic environment, Siemiradzki got his own workshop near the Spanish steps, where at that time, going to the sitters and artist's model of Rome, as well as selling flowers. The artist writes picture "the Sinner" by order of Grand Prince Vladimir, which began in Munich is a relatively cheap Roman sitters had to be very helpful. Album with 32 sketches for the painting "Sinner" is stored in the Krakow National Museum, and the painting itself is in the State Russian Museum. Color and technique will match the tastes of the audience of Saint-Petersburg in 1873, "the Sinner" was a great success on the academic exhibition, however, has been criticized as one of the leading art historians of that time, Vladimir Stasov (1824 – 1906), one of the main instigators "of the Association of traveling exhibitions." Sticking to Semiradskogo with "easy" hands Stasov glory to the artist whose work has no soul and expression, pursued Semiradsky life. Stasov it was not so: – the "Italian", "shadow of peace" was absent, considering the amazing sound light and color a "secondary matter", with virtuosity without a soul.
The artist married in 1873; his life companion was cousin Semiradsky, 18-year-old Maria Prosensa. To marry a close relative, the painter needed a special permit, and it was received. The wedding was held in Warsaw. The couple had three sons Boleslav (1874), Casimir (1876; the boy lived only one year) and Leon (1883). In 1878 the family Semiradsky had a daughter – Wanda.
After "Sinners" following the grandiose work of Henry Semiradsky became a huge (3,85х7,04 m), the painting "the Lights of Christianity" ("the Torches of Nero"), was completed in 1876. When working on this painting, the artist spent a lot of time walking through the ancient ruins of Rome, looking at the destroyed house of Nero. He read a lot – as the Roman classics, and books about their art, trying to most accurately depict the architectural and historical moments inherent in the period of persecution of Christians. Six composite designs, more than a hundred pieces, endless sketches and drafts – work on "the light of Christianity" absorbed artist. The first show was held in Rome the audience was enthusiastic, the critics – no. Then the painting was shown in Munich and Vienna, and with the same results: the audience praised the artist, critics tightened their epithets.
Written in the same period, the painting "the Persecutors of the Christians at the entrance to the catacombs" was criticized by the Council of the Academy of censure, and the artist received an official reprimand very offended. Continuing work on "the light of Christianity," Siemiradzki wrote a number of works "for earnings", the theme of which is "the history of the ancient Greco-Roman life." In the same year he created four sketches for paintings of the temple of Christ the Savior.
Pensionerstvo Semiradsky ended. In the spring of 1877 the "Luminaries of Christianity", despite the difficulties of the Russian-Turkish military company, arrived safely in Saint Petersburg. The Council of the Academy of painting was adopted enthusiastically, and Semiradskogo, who had by that time the title of academician, was awarded the title of Professor. Criticism, as always, was merciless.
In 1878 a picture of "the Lights of Christianity" won the Grand Prix at the world exhibition in Paris, and the artist was awarded the title of Chevalier of the Legion of honor. A year later, he gave the painting to Krakow, where before it initiated the creation of the national gallery of art in the former cloth hall.
After the "light of Christianity" Siemiradzki has embarked on a new phase of his artistic career – painting of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow. He was ordered to perform four scenes from the life of St. Alexander Nevsky in the gallery of the North aisle of the temple; the artist worked on them in the summer of 1876. The murals have not survived because the Church was blown up in December 1931, however, the sketches have survived in the collection of the State Russian Museum. A year later Semiradskogo offered another order to paint the Cathedral of Christ the Savior – he made the altar painting "the last supper", and a year later the painting of the "Epiphany" and "the Entry of Jesus Christ into Jerusalem".
At the end of the work Siemiradzki returned to Italy. In 1879 he wrote the painting "Dance among swords," which immediately was bought by count Alexander Orlowski. This job came to his contemporaries in the replica (1881), commissioned from the artist by the Moscow businessman and art collector Kozma by Soldatenkova; picture is stored in the Tretyakov gallery.
In the early 1880s, Henry Siemiradzki built himself a Villa near the center of Rome. On via Gaeta under his direction was erected the three-story mansion where he settled with his wife and children. Spacious workshop with plenty of light was divided into two parts. In the first, main, Siemiradzki received customers and guests here were exhibited his finished paintings. In the second part everything was arranged according to the preference of the artist for creative productive work, including the mounted special mechanisms for lifting large canvases – with their help, he subsequently created a huge work of "Light and dark" (8.5 m) for the decoration of the ceiling of the mansion in Warsaw.
In the Roman guides the house Semiradsky was listed as one of the local landmarks – not surprising that limiting the flow of guests, the artist took only two days a week, the rest of the time devoting to work and family. In the days of the public presentation of finished works in a narrow street thronged by the curious and lovers of art Semiradsky: collectors and representatives of the Royal families of the Polish magnates and Russian patrons, artists and poets all took the time to admire the new paintings.
During this period, Siemiradzki received an order for monumental paintings for the Museum of antiquities in Moscow: "the burning of the corpse of the leader of the Rus in Bulgaria" and "Trizna vigilantes Svyatoslav after the battle of Dorostolon in 971". These works demanded from the artist a great historical work; he was constantly consulted by count Uvarov – archaeologist and Museum Director, studied literature and national costume. Despite the negative press, the work progressed rather quickly: the artist was fascinated by the monumental canvases the opportunity to Express themselves in a compositional solutions. The audience saw both paintings in November 1884.

Two years later Cemerski creates two light – "Spring" and "Aurora". These monumental compositions decorated the St. Petersburg house of the industrialist and philanthropist Yuriy Nechaev-Maltsov – the man actually gave the Moscow Museum of fine arts (now the Pushkin Museum to them.Pushkin).
In 1886 Henri semiradzki finished work on the painting "Christ with Martha and Mary." The show was visited by Queen Margaret, and everyone: before the exhibition in Berlin, the artist presented the picture in his Rome Atelier.
Several paintings created after "Christ" and dedicated the peace and quiet monastic life caused a great emotional response neither the public nor the artist himself. More joyous was the return to the traditional Semiradsky Hellenic subjects in the painting "phryne at the festival of Poseidon in Elefsina". The artist wrote: "I dreamed about the story of the life of the Greeks, enabling them to put more of a classic beauty in her performance. In this story I found a vast amount of material! Sun, sea, architecture, beauty and silent delight of the Greeks at the sight of the beautiful women of his time, - the enthusiasm of the people-the artist, nothing similar to modern cynicism admirers of kokotek..." in the Winter of 1889 "phryne" appeared before the audience in Saint-Petersburg. Rafalowska exhibited in the hall of the art Academy, the picture has been further illuminated with electric lamps Yablochkov is caused in the press a lot of questions, and Semiradskogo had to make excuses – saying he used artificial lighting to the sound of the paint is not faded. The insert was a huge success, the painting was purchased by the Emperor and went to exhibition tour to the cities of Europe. Siemiradzki and continued to work on paintings, choosing subjects in historical and genre painting: "the fountain" (1893), "After bathing" (1895), "dice" (1899), etc. In February 1894, the audience saw a Grand stage curtain, created by Henry Siemiradzki for the Krakow Opera before heading to Krakow showed it to the Roman public. For the creation of a curtain, the artist asked only for the actual expenses – this monumental work was his gift to Krakow. Another stage curtain – for the Lviv City theatre – was founded in 1899
For the Warsaw Philharmonic Siemiradzki created two panels – "secular Music" and "Music is spiritual". Arriving in 1901, their installation, the artist expressed a regret that won't be able to work. He felt that he left to live long. In late October 1901, the doctors confirmed the sad diagnosis – cancer of the tongue. Siemiradzki was fading fast; in the summer of 1902 the family moved to the estate Strzalkowo, near Częstochowa. 23 Aug 1902 Henry Siemiradzki died. He was buried in Warsaw, near the graves of his parents. Later, at the request of the public, the coffin of Henry Semiradsky were reburied in Krakow, in the Church of the Pauline "the rolling pin", among the graves of the prominent sons of Poland.

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