- 20 September−19 NovemberЭкспрессионизм в русском искусствеГосударственный Русский музей представляет выставку «Экспрессионизм в русском искусстве» . Этот проект – следующий в ряду монографических выставок ГРМ, посвященных крупнейшим течениям в русском искусстве начала ХХ столетияSaint Petersburg, Russia, State Russian Museum, ул. Инженерная, 4
A leader of the 20th century avant-garde movement, the artist was born in Vitebsk on July 6th (or 7th, unknown for sure) 1887 in the family of a clerk. Mark received a traditional religious home education (Hebrew, the Torah and the Talmud). In 1906 he was enrolled to a private school Hummana. In Petersburg, in 1906−1909, Chagall attended the drawing school of the society for the encouragement of arts, Studio Smesitel and school Entances, where his teachers were Lsast and Mavzalevskiy. He lived in Petersburg-Petrograd, Vitebsk and Moscow, and in 1910−1914 in Paris, in the artists ' colony «La Ruche» («Beehive»), being acquainted with Gadolinium, Makoba, Aselmann, Raelene and other avant-garde artists.
Chagall died in Saint-Paul-de-Vence (Alpes Maritimes, France).
Marc Chagall, an outstanding artist of the XX century, was born in Vitebsk, Republic of Belarus, within the borders of the settlement identified by Catherine II for compact residing of Jews. He was the ninth child in the family. His father worked in a warehouse, where he smoked herring, and the mother was holding her own store selling the herring.
Mark attended a school at the synagogue. Chagall gained his first artistic skills in the high school. Then he started to take private lessons from a professional Realist artists.
In 1907, Mark Chagall moved to St. Petersburg, where he met Leon Leon Bakst (who was then the most fashionable theatre designer) and became a frequent visitor to his art studio. In those years, Chagall painted such pictures as «Dead» (1908) and «The Bride in Black Gloves» (1909).
In 1910 by the blessings and money cartridge Chagall went to Paris. A year and a half Chagall rent premises under his own Studio on the outskirts of Paris, at La Ruche, where lived local Bohemians. There Chagall met with poets-garde Blaise Santarom, max Jacob and Guillaume appolinaire, expressionist Stanom, master Deleniem and cubist Jean Metzinger. The company was fertile ground for the development of any direction in art.
That’s when Chagall began to show and develop their unique artistic technique, the beginnings of which were evident in St. Petersburg. During those four years in Paris Chagall wrote, «I and the village (1911), «self-Portrait with seven fingers» (1912), «Skripach» (1912) and others Often in his paintings appeared unassuming heroes of pleasant appearance, with the Eastern type of face and curly hair, in which it is easy to know the author. Chagall several times participated in the Paris art shops Paris Salon des Independants and the Salon dAutomne. Finally, in 1914 in Berlin was his first solo exhibition in the gallery Der Sturm. Marc Chagall was struck by the art public of Germany.
After this success, he returned to his native Vitebsk, where he caught the beginning of the first World war. There he made sketches in a realistic style, for example, «Rabbi from Vitebsk» (1914).
In 1915, Marc Chagall married Faith Rosenfeld, the daughter of a rich Vitebsk merchant. From this point Faith also became a frequent character of his paintings, such as «Double portrait with a glass of wine» (1917) and «birthday» (1915−1923).
The October revolution of 1917 Chagall embraced with enthusiasm. He even two and a half years he was Commissioner for culture in Vitebsk, tried to organize various exhibitions, opening of museums and schools. But the constant ideological disputes with the local authorities made Chagall to move to Moscow. Here he worked as theater artist.
In 1922, Chagall returned to Berlin, where he discovered the loss of many of his works.
In 1923 he moved with his family to Paris. One of the aspects of Chagall’s creativity was the graphics, which he studied in Berlin. On arrival in Paris he became acquainted with the publisher Ambroise Vollard, communication with which marked the beginning of a new period in the artist. Vollard immediately suggested Chagall to work on illustrations for the French edition of «Dead souls» by Gogol.
Three years later they started a new project — the edition of «Fables» of Jean de La Fontaine with Chagall’s illustrations in the style of the XVIII century. Originally the artist wanted to do watercolor illustrations, but they proved to be unsuitable for printing, so he returned to black and white technique. By 1931 100 sketches for «Fables» were ready.
Following their joint project was illustrated Bible. By 1939, Chagall completed 66 sketches. But death Vollard and the beginning of World war II forced the company to suspend work on the project. However, Chagall continued to paint, and by 1945 he had made 105 sketches.
After the war, the Paris publisher Teriad began to gradually restore developments Vollard that he had not managed to implement. So, in 1948 were published in «Dead souls», in 1952 — «Fables», and in 1956 — the Bible. Naturally, they all contain colorful illustrations by Marc Chagall. During the work with Vollard Chagall visited many countries in search of nature for their songs: on the French Riviera in 1926, in Palestine in 1931, Holland, Spain, Poland and Italy.
In 1931 Chagall published the French version of his biography, «My life"which he decided back in Russia. In 1933 in Basel, Switzerland, held a Grand exhibition of works by Chagall, which cemented his popularity in Europe.
With the war Chagall moved to the Loire, and with the approach of the Germans to France moved further South of the country. Finally, in July 1941, when the threat of a concentration camp became obvious, Shagal family immigrated to the USA.
For several years he lived in new York city or the surrounding area, continuing to work on the paintings, conceived in Europe. The typical work of this period was the painting «the Feathers and flowers» (1943). In 1944 wife died Chagall. Since then, her image was often appear in the works of Chagall: «Around it» (1945), «the Wedding candle» (1945), «Nocturne» (1947). In 1945 in new York city was preparing for the ballet of Igor Stravinsky’s «the Firebird», on the costumes and scenery for which worked Marc Chagall. And in 1946 the Museum of Modern Art hosted a large-scale exhibition of Chagall. These two events radically changed the opinion of American critics about the artist — indulgence changed the thrill.
In 1948, Chagall returned to France (first in Paris and then settled on the Riviera). In 1952, a 65-year-old Chagall married Vava the Brodskaya. In his life began the second youth. From 1953 to 1956, Chagall painted a lot of Paris, not forgetting his native Vitebsk. In 1958, Chagall was invited by the artist for registration of the ballet Ravel’s «Daphnis and Chloe». In the same year he created several mosaics and stained-glass Windows for the Catholic Church in Metz, and then to the synagogue at the medical center in Jerusalem.
In 1964 Chagall developed the glass front of the UN building in new York and the project of the new interior design of the Paris Opera, and two years later he completed the work on the frescoes in the New York Metropolitan Opera. In 1967 he participated as an artist in the performance «the Magic flute» by Mozart in Мetropolitan Opera. In 1973 in nice was opened the Museum of Mark Shagal, and in 1977 in the Louvre appeared personal exhibition of works of the artist.
The works of Marc Chagall, in paintings which are present and massive bouquets, and melancholic clowns, and hovering in the clouds love, and mythical animals, and biblical prophets, and even violinists on the roof, was a milestone in the development of world art. Marc Chagall lived until the end of life on the French Riviera. on March 28, 1985, it was not.