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France • 1840−1917
Francois Auguste Rene Rodin (FR. François-Auguste-René Rodin on 12 November 1840, Paris, 17 November 1917, MEUDON) – French sculptor, the founder of modern sculpture, alone marked a new era in this art form.

Features of works of the sculptor Auguste Rodin: naturalistic and physiological accuracy with which Rodin could reproduce in the human body and its extreme emotional state, sexuality and the symbolism of the sculptures of. Rodin used the sculptural texture, contrasting surface finish as additional expressive reception. Leaving a sculpture raw elements of living stone, Rodin makes the figures seemed to be affected from the material, grasping the dynamics of birth and rebirth. Staying in a traditional narrative context (mythological, historical, religious, and literary themes), Roden raskoldoval long embalmed totally new technical and expressive means. Rodin succeeded in becoming an innovator in art of the XIX century and the founder of modern art.

The famous sculpture of Auguste Rodin: "The thinker", "The kiss", The Burghers Of Calais, "The bronze age".

By the end of the XIX century, Rodin was the most famous and popular sculptor in France. In his Studio were about 50 aides. Someone made a plaster mold that somebody has carved elements from marble. Worked here close to patinirovanie, casters, wizards, reducing and increasing the original shape to the desired size. Coming to the trading room the customer can choose the desired sculpture, and then to determine the size – and he was casted from bronze the shape. Rodin biographer Ruth Butler estimated that only between 1898 and 1918, at his workshop cast 319 "Kisses". During the life of the sculptor, was adopted a bill on the establishment of the musée Rodin in his Paris Studio. His friends began to gather here for sculptures, documents, drawings.

This enchanting glory went to the man who for 35 years worked as a journeyman and not used to put a signature on fabricated sculptures. When the Salon will take his first bust "The man with the broken nose"that Rodin already have a wife, 9-year-old son and an enviable experience of a craftsman.

Craftsman Rodin

Fifteen-year-old student at the Royal school of art Auguste Rodin didn't have money for paint and canvas. So every day he came to the Louvre, admired Titianand Rembrandt,and then downstairs and copied antique statues. Fortunately, the pencil and the paper money is always enough. At the Royal school taught thoroughly and free: the graduates then become assistants of the goldsmiths, engravers, drawing patterns for fabrics, patterns for lace and maps, carved from wood and stone decorative elements for the decoration of public buildings, churches and private homes.

Do it was impossible, because teachers and relatives by the time he recorded Auguste in the ranks of the hopelessly incapable of science. In school, he never mastered arithmetic, with Latin, he reads and writes like a child, slowly and with a funny error. His father, Jean Baptiste Rodin, every year more and more despair: it is clear that Auguste is not to become an officer, so even if you learn some craft and earns a living. After graduating from a Small school confident in their vocation and encouraged by the praise of the masters Auguste carries pictures of the "big" School of fine arts. Jury Rodin did not take neither this time nor the next two. And it will start to learn.

Other people's workshops

The period of apprenticeship will be delayed for 20 years. Forever beggar Roden will restore city monuments, squared blocks of marble, cast forms, cut sets and ornaments, read books, draw pictures of plants and birds, to study the stuffed wild animal in Museum of natural history, to decorate with sculptures the building of the Brussels stock exchange under the renowned sculptor carrier-Belleza, to serve in the National guard during the war, working 12-14 hours a day, to send from Belgium scarce cash reserves in Paris, wife and son.

Rose Beuret was not Rodin's lawful wife. In besieged Paris during the Franco-Prussian war she made uniforms for soldiers, changed the damp cloth on the sculpture of her husband, abandoned in Paris that they are not cracked, and tried to feed my son. Money from Auguste came rarely, more often – letters: "I wanted to send five francs and you gave a small dinner party by inviting Madame and Monsieur Poolbar, but will send them next time", "Imagine, my little rose, I had great difficulties. About three months I did not work". When Rodin start to earn decently, molding in Belgium bronze statues, rose will be able to come to him. The son will be in Paris, my aunt Rodin.

The Workshops Of Rodin

On the street Lebrun

The first workshop of Rodin withdrew before the war, on the street Lebrun, of desperation – he needed somewhere to run away from home, where ever a child was crying and was preparing lunch. It was a former stable of the smallest in Paris the rent: "I could now move a few steps from my clay to compare it with nature... air Flows into the room from everywhere: through bad akrivastina Windows, warped from the damp wooden door, broken shingles on the old roof. So there was constant drafts and ice cold. In the corner was a well with water, why in the stables was always penetrating damp..."

Here Rodin works in the late evening or early morning, vykraivaya miserable hours in your spare from home. Him posing rose and local vagrants, because the money for sitters of course not. Either here on the street Lebrun, or even later, while living in Montmartre, Rodin doesn't go to cabarets and bars, he always away from the Bohemian life – it only works.

On the street of Fourneaux

Rodin rents Studio in the Rue Fourneaux, on arrival from Belgium, where he lived for 7 years. He recently visited Italy, often starving and almost everywhere on foot, but saw work Michelangeloand Rafael. From Italy, Rodin wrote to his wife: "I have to admit that I don't eat consistently, and only when nothing else to watch..." And now, in this new workshop on the streets Fourneau in Paris, he takes the models and sets along the walls brought from Belgium author's works. Soon one of them will go to the Salon.

In 1877 sculpture "Bronze age", adopted in the Salon, will finally bring Rodin fame, albeit controversial. Sculptor accused of using a cast from a living (or worse dead) model. The sitter, a Belgian soldier, has agreed to appear naked before the jury, he was not released from the country, and then appointed a Commission of inquiry, then there was a written complaint to the assistant Minister. The absurd became a scandal, the more it sounded the name of Rodin and the more attention was attracted to his work, defenders and fans more than critics. Not only grows the welfare Rodin – the state did not buy the sculpture "Bronze age". And find private customers for the sculptor, unlike the painter, is an impossible task. And in preparation for the world exhibition of 1878 he again participates as an anonymous decorator.

University street, near the Champs de Mars

Workshops at the warehouse of marble, the state provided the sculptors who worked on large-scale public projects. Rhoden singled out two, when he in 1880 he received the first major order – entry door (6 meters tall) in the Museum of decorative arts. In the workshop at the University Rodin will commence work on the ambitious project "Gates of hell"will it change and modify, but did not finish.

Almost all of the money received from the state in advance, the sculptor spends on production of casts, casting forms, payment of sitters, which were followed the whole day just being in the Studio, to move from corner to corner waiting for the exact postures and the command "freeze". Working on the "Gates of hell" Rodin made hundreds of drawings destroyed dozens of sketches and created 200 figures and some eventually separated from the total ensemble and lived independently – that "the Thinker" and "the Kiss", and "Three shadows". 23 years after receiving the order, Rodin will return to the state the money and leave, never ready to end "the Gates of hell" itself.

For this order will follow the other: the monument to the burghers of Calais, monument Victor Hugo. About Roden know in Sweden, Belgium, England, Holland. In 1889, at the Galerie Georges Petit held a joint exhibition Monet and Rodin: 70 paintings, 36 sculptures. Rodin call to teach.

On the Italian Boulevard

Teaching the eminent sculptor have for several girls. They took the workshop together and pay sitters and dream to be taught Rodin. Among female students, 19-year-old Camille Claudelthe most inspiring and the most destructive passion of Auguste Rodin. He buys a house on the banks of the Seine in Paris, but moved there with Rose, the woman next to him for 20 years. And Camilla's assistant, student, mistress, model, power, genius, boring, sharp mind. Every day she comes to Rodin in the workshop on the Italian Boulevard, it is amazing the power of talent, inspires and helps, sometimes the scandals, all the more insistent and frightening, begging for yourself a trip – just the two of us, only with Auguste. He tells Rosa that will go away for a few days and disappears for months. Camille promises to commit suicide, and scandals increasingly, Rosa grumbles and complains, with the hope of observing the First signs of the disease so that they will stay home for a few days and will belong only to her. So could not last long – Roden escapes to Switzerland to rest and recuperate, Camille destroys all his sculptures and lives a recluse, rose waits patiently at home.

Villa Brian

Villa Brian Roden bought at the peak of glory to a small building built a spacious workshop and finally enjoying financial confidence, passion filled her Antiques and furniture, hanging favorite paintings of the Impressionists. He got all three of the Legion of honor in France and the national medals of those countries where he was received with exhibitions, he became Chairman of the jury Society of fine arts, he had a Bank account and the money in the safe. He's working intelligent admiring secretaries (while Rilke), which he, without any reason or explanation in turn exposes the door. In his house are assistants and students, more of them every year. But Rodin often repeats already created before the sculpture, makes to order at fantastic prices and in different sizes, but almost not working on a new large-scale official orders.

The Hotel Biron

The hotel Biron is a Palace with a strange and confused history: built by order of the rich merchant, belonged to the Marshal, then to the nuns, it is going to carry, it is dilapidated and waiting for the decision of the authorities. Then a separate room temporarily to take artists and artists – for a pittance. Here he conducted classes with students Matisseand dance – Isadora Duncan. Rodin took the hotel two rooms for workshop and began to slowly carry in these huge halls of his sculptures, drawings. Lost his head from female attention, it's fleeting visits, not much distinction, hunts another passion for his charm or money. He became promiscuous and inconsistent actions. He finally, after 50 years of marriage and just before her death, he married rose. But before that and after went to hotel Biron and impassioned, wrote another Testament to young love. When at the age of 77 years Rodin died from pneumonia, his friends found several dozen such mindless wills.

In France there was a war, therefore the decision on creation of the musée Rodin in the hotel Biron was temporarily postponed. It will open in two years.

Author: Anna Sidelnikova
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