Germany • 1877−1962

Gabrielle Munter (or Gabriele Munter; it. Gabriele Münter, February 19, 1877, Berlin – may 19, 1962, Murnau) – German artist-ekspressionistka, one of the founders of the group "The blue rider"the mistress of the famous "Russian house" in Murnau, where, together with her lived Wassily Kandinsky, Alexei Jawlenskyand Marianne Verevkina.

Features of creativity for the artist Gabrielle Munter: a passionate scholar of the Bavarian painting techniques on glass, Munter first of the German expressionists starts using it. After her to write on glassstarted other famous expressionists. In the traditional technique of "oil on canvas" Munter, a student of Kandinsky and Jawlensky, committed to an expressive, intense painting, which expresses primarily the inner state of the artist, not the outside world. Munter is a sensitive portraitist, who wrote the character and temperament model, pure contrast colors, and large flat forms. It is a fine landscape painter, whose compositions are rhythmic and flowing, and the familiar expressionist color spots lay boldly and solemnly.

Famous paintings by Gabrielle Munter: "In the meadow. Marianna Verevkina and Jawlensky Alexei", "In the boat", "Portrait of a young woman", "Russian house", "Colorful way".

The beginning of the path

Gabrielle Munter the poor girl who lost his father in childhood, a mother lost so young. Gabrielle Munter – happy young woman who could dispose of his life, career and a decent inheritance to their own discretion.

Gabriel started to draw when I was still living parents. She hired a private teacher, she was encouraged and supported. But without this support in 21 years, calm and even-tempered, educated and purposeful, Munter goes with her sister to America to live with distant relatives. For two years, toured her almost completely, gaining impressions and images, and learned to rely on themselves and make choices, and comes to Germany to study. No internal freedom and confidence could not in the end of XIX century to open the woman door in the art Academy, so Gabrielle Munter looking for a private school.

Exhibitions of artistic Association "Phalanx", the Munich audience react sluggishly, ignore or half-heartedly blamed for obscurity. Avant-garde ideas and bold techniques of the members of the "Phalanx" occasionally impress some young artist. Once one of these unsuccessful exhibitions, Munter quickly realizes that he has found a suitable place: it is near the art search her delight neoakademizma defiantly, daring paintings, finally in the "Phalanx" works art school. She plans to study immediately and in the sculpture Studio, and picturesque.
The painting here is taught by the founder of the society of Wassily Kandinsky.

Russian house Munter

Kandinsky at that time have long been married, he's older than Gabriel for 11 years, he is a brilliant painter and a brilliant teacher. "When I start painting, it is reminiscent of a sudden leap into deep water, and I never know if I can swim. And that's exactly Kandinsky taught me the art of swimming. I mean, he taught me to work quickly and confidently to achieve such a rapid and spontaneous fixing moments of life"- recalled Munter.

Community views and aspirations, joint field studies, travel – they're already making plans, getting engaged and living together. Will be 6 years old and Gabriel buy house near Munich, in the town of Murnau. Even now there are more horses and bikes than cars, and then all the village – quiet and slow. Together with Kandinsky they hit the garden, painted furniture patterns decorate the walls with paintings on glass and gather a collection of folk utensils.

In town this house is called Russian: here, the life, the guest rooms are not empty, come and long live friends-painters Yavlensky, Verevkina, Franz Marcand August Mackethe evening , written plans for the future of the almanac "the Blue rider", discusses the paintings by post-Impressionists and the fauves. At this time, are the first successful exhibition Gabrielle Munter, this is the time of creative breakthrough, gaining style and temperament.

With the outbreak of the First world war, Kandinsky becomes the unwanted one in Germany by a man – along with Munter, he moved to Switzerland, and then without it – in Russia. He will return to Germany to promise Gabriel a quick wedding. And marries another.

Recalling Murnau, Gabrielle Munter wrote: "K. I painted my closet in a special way – cute and funny. Through the middle compartment sweeps the blue rider and dark rider. He turned around and waved her hand, and she jumps with all his forces: sometimes the joke annoyed me because it was absolutely untrue – he never turned around and never said "come with me".

Dark rider

A new wife learns Munter Kandinsky a few years later – and 10 years will cease to write. Many years will pass before she again take up a brush and before you finally meet someone that will be able to connect the life, the art historian Johannes Eichner.
Gabriel will live in the Russian house the rest of your life, never trying to communicate with artists, to participate in large exhibitions and avant-garde groups. She writes a night quiet evening views from the Windows and bright landscapes of Murnau. In the 30-ies, when it comes to power Hitler and the artists-expressionists declared "degenerate", it has long lost sight of the blue rider, turned to his own way, which makes the feat. Risking their freedom and perhaps life, Munter hiding in the basement paintings of Kandinsky and former members of the "Blue rider". Already in 1957, the artist will give all the stored collection of paintings municipal gallery Lenbachhaus – about 1,000 paintings on canvas, wood, glass, drawings, sketches albums. This gift immediately transfer the Museum from the local status in the category of best world. Today to see the largest collection of works by the participants of the "Blue rider", you need to go in the Lenbachhausin Munich.

Dark rider died in her house in Murnau at the age of 85 years, ahead of over the years her former companion, if not on the path of glory, it is absolutely sure – on the path of nobility and loyalty to yourself.

Author: Anna Sidelnikova

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