Jose de Ribera (Spanish OE de Riberaalso known as Husepe de Ribera (Jusepe de Ribera) and Spagnoletto (Lo Spagnoletto – "the little Spaniard")12 January 1591, Xativa – September 2, 1652, Naples) Spanish caravaggist of the seventeenth century, painter and printmaker. A brilliant representative of the Baroque art. Since 1629 member of the Roman Academy of St. Luke.
Features of the artist josé de Ribera. As court painter to the Spanish viceroys in Naples, Ribera has been creating paintings on mythological and biblical subjects, and especially he managed scenes from the lives of the saints. The themes of asceticism and martyrdom Ribera decides in the key of a sharp drama, using contrasts of light and shadow and expressive positions of the shapes. In the late 1620-ies, lost after the change of power in Naples from influential patrons and scenic orders, Ribera engaged in graphics, transpirirovat caravaggesque contrasting light and shade from the sphere of painting in the engraving. The experience was a success: the etchings of Ribera (Drunken Silenus, "The martyrdom of St. Bartholomew"etc.) impress with their realism depicted and are considered to be the best that was created by the Spanish engravers to Goya.
He was born around 1591 in the town of Xativa near Valencia. However, at the age of just over twenty Ribera will always move to Italy. With 1612-13. he will lead the system by writing the hobo way of life, wandering without a penny in his pocket from Rome to Parma, from Parma – Padua. And in 1616-m shows up in Naples, where he would reside his entire life. Like many artists, his contemporaries, Ribera was keenly interested in classical art of Italy and has been seriously affected Caravaggio. But none of these factors will make the Ribera Italian artist will make even mentally to change Spain.
In the early seventeenth century, Spain continued to remain the global hegemon. Naples, where he lived Ribera, was a Spanish colony. Rulers and officials of Naples was appointed by the Spaniards. Some of the paintings of Ribera, almost immediately went to the palaces of Madrid, becoming the property of the Spanish crown. The signatures of his works, which he basically never did in Italian, Ribera will be hard to add the word "Hispanic".
Data on childhood and adolescence Ribera fragmentary. It is assumed that in Valencia he will become the disciple caravaggisti Francisco Ribaltaand Rome will join the masters ". school" imitators of Caravaggio, who wrote in a darkened room with a small window at the top, so expressive of light and shade. But documentary evidence of this was found. The early work of Ribera were not preserved.
We know almost nothing about the nature and scope of education received by Ribera. One thing is for sure: he knew of antiquity, as often signed his paintings in Latin. And even flaunted erudition: instead of the modern names of the cities indicated ancient. Instead of "Naples" wrote "Paranoia", and the Spanish Hative, the city where he was born, called "Cetaben". Apparently, father Ribera wanted Jose have devoted themselves to the noble occupation of medicine or to the service of God, which forced him to learn Latin. But things turned out differently Ribera was fond of painting.
We also do not know the period of apprenticeship from Ribera: he appears as a wizard.
In Naples Ribera talent pretty soon was appreciated: he was appointed the court painter. According to legend, it happened like this. Ribera concluded "the Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew" and being extremely satisfied with his work, put it on the balcony for all to see. A crowd of onlookers staring at the painting attracted the attention of the Duke Pedro de Giron Osuna, Vice – king of Naples, appointed by the Spaniards. Osuna was known to the demagogue and the populist. He led his game to the Neapolitan government came under the aegis of Spain and obtained sovereignty. But other than that, he appreciated art, he was very generous. And, of course, popular people the artist had to decorate his yard.
Once before Spanish authorities heard rumours about the anti-government machinations of Osuna. He was soon dismissed, along with him lost his place and Ribera. The Osuna was replaced by cardinals and Dukes, that was not the case before the art. However, in an unexpected way it went Ribera benefit.
Picturesque left without orders, he became interested in the engraving. The craze was so severe that over the next 9 years in engraving and etching at the expense of painting, Ribera will become the largest engraver, who knew Spain until Goya. His engravings became absolute innovation. Ribera discovered that figures can do convex and palpable relief not only through the picturesque contrasts, but with the help of tiny touches of the needle.
One of his best prints – Drunken Silenus (1628). The plastic expressiveness of its incredible. Stupid face of Silenus and his loose body hard to forget. But interestingly, Ribera and remains in line with the Spanish national traditions: ardent Catholicism looks at the sensual and pagan began with undisguised disgust. Drunkenness is not poeticizes and, moreover, he is not regarded as an erotic color, as in "Drunken Bacchus" Caravaggio. It's just ugly. In this Ribera continues to be a Spaniard, brought up on the idea of the transience of all earthly things.
Creative development Ribera is definitely a case of a successful overcoming caravaggism. The rejection of a purely external expression of nature in favor of a meaningful start. The rate is not on the scenic edge, and on the strength and depth of experience. This makes Ribera one of the greatest masters of realistic art.
Fortune again smiled Ribera, when the authorities in Naples came to an enlightened Duke de Alcala. By the time Ribera had already been recognized even by their ideological opponents – Roman scholars. He was elected a member of the Roman "Academy of St. Luke" in 1626, And in 1629-m Alcala was again invited him to take a position as a court painter in charge will be all the artwork in the monasteries and palaces of Naples.
Ribera's fame peaked when he was in Naples arrived Velasquez – court painter of king Philip IV of Spain. Ribera's work then became the order of the Spanish court. However he dies he is still in poverty and obscurity 2 Sep 1652 – by the time Spain, with whom he identified himself, Spagnoletto, will plunge into a catastrophic crisis, will lose territory and Imperial grandeur.
It is considered that beauty and ugliness are equally attracted great artists. But this is probably not true. Strange and ugly interested the Ribera much sharper, much more intense. For one as lovely as an angel, "the Holy Inessa" we have over three dozen martyrs with exhausted bodies and distorted faces. Sensuous and beautiful "Mary Magdalene" opposed much more impressive "SV. Mary Of Egypt" – half-naked older, with sagging Breasts and sunken cheeks but blazing eyes of faith. Spirit pravoslaviye the weakness of human flesh, that's the main theme of Ribera.
Where "the little Spaniard", which became a great artist, could look for nature? They say he did not disdain to write weather-beaten faces of fishermen and calloused hands of the peasants, with great care sketching out the wrinkles, warts and tumors. The notorious "Spanish severity" Ribera invariably prevailed over Italian delicacy mannerism. Even children ("the Lame", "Girl with tambourine") in the image of Ribera more all is far from sweetness. In addition, Spagnoletto curled macabre and not without reason the rumors that he spends hours in Naples prisons, sketching out how writhing under the torture of prisoners.
But Ribera was not alone. Not him alone took a bizarre and scary. This interest pervades all art and life of the Baroque era. It's hard to imagine the Royal court without the midgets and freaks. Everything beyond the norm and loved the Duke of Alcala. He once led a workshop, Spagnoletto Magdalena Ventura – a middle-aged bearded woman to the artist captured the nature of the error. To honor Ribera I must say that he did not negotiate the deformity. Not a mockery, but the human sympathy of the artist is read in the tired faces of bearded women, mutilated raging hormones, and her unfortunate husband. In this – the whole of Ribera.
Artist and connoisseur of art, Pacheco saw the picture of Spagnoletto among other first-rate works in the collection of the Duke de Alcala, said: "Only the paintings of Ribera seem alive, and the rest drawn".