Pavel Fedorovich Tchelitchew: (September 21, 1898, p. Dubrovka — 1 Aug 1957, Frascati) — Russian artist, siskowski fame abroad. One of the first representatives of surrealism.
Features of the artist Pavel Fedorovich Chelishchev: Early work Chelishchev, who compared the works Chagallwas sustained in the General direction of Russian avant-garde. But after numerous forced and voluntary travels in Europe and America andré opens new ideas in art. He gradually goes from surreal images to the "angelic portraits" with translucent blood vessels and glowing lines, and metamorphic painting — to the "new Lucida".
Famous paintings of Pavel Fedorovich Chelishchev: "Phenomenon", "He that seeketh shall find", "The inner landscape", "Portrait Of Ruth Ford", "Portrait of my father", "The concert".
Family: a fertile ground for the development of the artist
Pavel tchelitchew was born Federowicz in the Kaluga region, in the village of Dubrovka (at present the Kaluga region, Duminichsky district). His father was the local landowner and his family he was, believed to be from one of the companions of Dmitry Donskoy. In the past he was a scientist-mathematician, who held the position of associate Professor of mathematical Sciences MSU that played a role in the development of the son.
The boy soon began to show artistic ability, which the father tried to support. He wrote him a magazine "World of art" and even hired private teachers for drawing. One of the points of support of creativity of the future artist was Lobachevsky’s geometry: thanks to this theory later was born the "mystical Outlook" Chelishchev. On the way to its attainment, the artist drew the pencil drawings, with a special vision: it from a young age was able to catch fantastic images, watching natural views and objects.
In his growing mastery andré has reached great heights. There is a beautiful story that when the drawings of the young artist fell into the hands of Konstantin Korovinalready known impressionist said: "I have nothing new to teach him. He is already an artist".
Social status, financial solvency of the family and all support children’s enthusiasm could be the key to unprecedented success Chelishchev, the key to a brilliant artistic future. However, the revolution not only overthrew the political regime, but also turned on the head of everyone’s fate. Having to spend two years in Moscow, young man together with his family left his native village and was deported on the orders of Lenin in Kiev.
However, Kiev did not become for him an exile in the full sense of the word, here andré was able to continue his education. Since childhood, fond of theatre and ballet, he created sketches of costumes and scenery for the operetta "the Geisha" by Sidney Jones, which has not been delivered. He took lessons from A. Exterand A. Milmanand entered the Kiev Academy of arts.
From Constantinople to Berlin. Political and creative pursuits Chelishchev
The civil war made renowned cartographer in the army of Denikin. However, having visited Odessa, and then in Novorossiysk (historians do not always agree about its exact whereabouts at this time), he in 1920 makes the decision to finally leave Russia — then the Russian Federation. With the White army, he went to Istanbul. Here it is again awaiting a creative activity of the artist preparing the scenery for the ballet of Victor Zimin and Boris Knyazev. Later with Knyazev he leaves Istanbul, is sent to the capital of Bulgaria and tries himself as a Illustrator. In Sofia he draws a collection of articles devoted to the movement of Eurasianism.
The next destination — Berlin. Here andré was engaged in decorating the Russian romantic theatre of Boris Romanov and performances of the Berlin Opera, where at the time put "the Golden Cockerel" by Rimsky-Korsakov. Here we worked not only he, but also such pillars of Russian avant-garde like Marc Chagall, Archipenko, Boguslavskaya. In Berlin, andré begins to write to order, and genres of his works are quite different: portraits, landscapes and still lifes.
And again in a Way. Now Paris and then London.
In Paris tchelitchew became one of the designers of "Russian seasons" Dyagileva. The artist participated in the design of the ballet-oratorio "Ode" created by Lomonosov ode to the "Evening meditation on God’s Majesty." Production was distinguished by bold decisions, ahead of its time that the public does not appreciate.
André really was absorbed in painting. 1920-ies — the time of the search and attempts of synthesis of different styles in the creative work of the artist. However, realism still dominates, only the appearance of the characters become more expressive, dramatic. A little bit of content begins to dominate the external form, and then becomes the sole purpose of searching the master.
American writer Gertrude Stein was the first known owner of the painting Chelishchev — "Basket of strawberries". She apparently harbored tender feelings for the artist and bought all of his work. Salon Stein played an important role in the formation of a Russian emigrant as a person and artist. Here he met fateful for him — the English poet Edith Sitwell, which became not only his patron, assistant (moral and financial) and close friend for many years. Friendship with the American poet and writer Charles Henry Ford lasted to the end of the artist’s life. After the death of the renowned Mr. Ford remained the owner of many of his works. Among the paintings that belonged to him, there are the portraits of Ford, his sister — actress, Ruth and, of course, Edith Sitwell.
Pavel tchelitchew: American beauty
With Ford and tchelitchew went to the next place of residence — United States. In the sphere of his work are the new directions. The artist prepares playbills, draws illustrations, makes the magazine View, published by Henry Ford, well-known today Vouge. The master even becomes the author of the design of labels for wine bottles.
Magic painting-faux Pavel tchelitchew began to create in the 20-ies, the ideological work ahead Salvador Dali and Rene Magritte. But in America, this theme is revealed most clearly. Multivalue works, paintings which manifest several stories and images that are close to the ideas of surrealism, combined with the techniques of classical painting, familiar and understandable. André stops to limit yourself to stylistic decisions, and the versatility of flow of the material is its special feature and at the same time a way to find and understand your way in art.
Muddled landscapes, crazy landscapes, mixing the living with the nonliving and frightening transformation of the human body in the dead objects are the basis of surrealism Dali de Chiricobut all this has been established years earlier by the Russian artist on the other side of the Atlantic.
During their metamorphic and metaphysical art searches Chelishev pays attention to another direction, monochrome painting. Historians believe that this interest stems from his trip to Africa, after which he began to use only grey, brown and ochre. To enhance the expressiveness of the structure, he added to the paint ground coffee and sand.
One of the most important periods of search renowned stop on this journey is "angel portraits" or "metaphysical head." At first glance, these heads resemble x-rays, but anatomy is not the goal of the artist. His idea and the problem is not new: find and show the essence of the person. New is the approach: "the essence" in understanding Paul Chelishchev is not a character and not the external features of the model, but the internal energy, the soul, what motivates a person. Later, this energy he began to depict the pulsating light lines running through the head in circles. André wrote: "I am interested in the prospect of internal. Projection in us higher. Strive to conquer the Universe is useless — we must first understand yourself."
Worldwide fame and recognition of the great Dali and Picassocame to Chelisheva starting with a solo exhibition in 1942. "He that seeketh shall find" (or "Kas-kas" — hide and seek) — picture, which overshadowed "Guernica"Picasso, while hanging next to the Museum hall. It’s a weird painting evoked the interest of even the youngest audience. This is not surprising: work with a peculiar image of a mother’s womb was created as a reaction to the birth of a great-nephew of the artist. It reflected his admiration for the miracle of the appearance of man on the light. The painting was part of a triptych devoted to sacred and symbolic to the theme of hell, purgatory and Paradise.
It is noteworthy that the growing popularity of supposedly oppressed the depiction of the author. The more enthusiastic fans around the bizarre display of receding reality. Geometrically abstract forms, piercing rays of light revealed a new stage and began the final step in the work Chelishchev.
Last years the artist lived in Italy in a Villa in Frascate, near Rome. In 50-ies he has held two successful solo exhibitions in Paris. Died Pavel Fedorovich tchelitchew in 1957 from a heart attack. He is buried in France at the Père Lachaise cemetery.
Life after the death of Paul Chelishchev
Works Chelishchev was popular abroad, always aroused curiosity, confusion or admiration, leaving no one indifferent. After the author’s death his best friends Henry Ford and his sister Ruth Ford strongly supported the memory of the artist, exhibited his works and has exhibited work at the auction. It was really lots in demand. So they remain nowadays.
At the auction works Chelishchev appeared more than 800 times. Collectors understand that today the purchase of works of the "Russian Dali" - a sign of fine taste and ability to understand art, as well as a profitable investment. So, in 2010, the "Portrait of Ruth Ford" was sold five times above the originally designated price for 986 $ 500. Ruth herself died a few months before the sale at the age of 98 years. Only after the death of his brother and sisters their heirs were able to put portrait and other work at the auction.
The sensation was Christie’s 2016, on which picture of Paul Chelishchev "Concert" was bought for 1 735 405 dollars.
In recent years, the popularization of the once "bourgeois" and virtually unknown in the post-Soviet space of the master does Konstantin Kedrov — the-great-nephew, his birth inspired the artist to create paintings "he that seeketh shall find". He has held several exhibitions, the latest of which took place in 2015 in the gallery "Our artists".
Author: Lyudmila Lebedeva