Grabar (Grabow)Igor Emmanuilovich
1871 Budapest — 1960 Moscow
He studied at the legal and historical-philological faculty of Petersburg University (1889 to 1893), the Petersburg Academy of arts (1894 — 1896) at I.E. Repin, visited the Studio of P.P. Chistyakov, in the school of A. Anton Aschbe in Munich (1896 — 1898), where then taught (1898 — 1901). From 1913 — academician. Member of the Academy of hudozhestv. Trustee (1913 — 1918), and then Director (1918 — 1925) of the Tretyakov gallery. Professor and Director of the Moscow art Institute (1937 — 1943), Institute of painting, sculpture and architecture (1943 — 1946), participant of the exhibitions of the Moscow society of art lovers (1898 — 1899), "World of art" (1901 to 1922), the Union of Russian artists (1903 — 1910). people’s artist of the USSR (from 195?).
Nature has endowed I. E. Grabar with many talents, which, much to the surprise of others, he was able to implement. Has become a significant artist, art historian, art critic, restorer, a teacher, a Museum worker, wonderful organizer, even an architect. Thus for nearly sixty years, he, due to his violent temperament, was one of the most active participants and leaders of the artistic life of the country.
In 1876 parents Grabar, the former in the number of supporters of Slavic liberation movement, settled in Russia. After finishing the gymnasium Grabar studied at the Moscow Lyceum (1882−89). He dreamed about painting, tried to be closer to the artistic circles, attended all exhibitions studied the collection of the Tretyakov gallery and other meetings in Moscow.
In autumn of 1889, eighteen years old, almost penniless Grabar going to Petersburg. Going to University, studying there for four years in two faculties at once — legal and historical-philological and hard preparing for admission to the Academy of Arts. At this time he earns his living by writing humorous stories and illustrations for magazines. Stages of receipt of the Academy of arts (1894) and the beginning of learning Grabar was brilliant and rapidly. Already in 1895 he is in the Studio very revered I. E. Repin.
But in the summer of 1895 on vacation Grabar made a trip to Berlin, Paris, Venice, Florence, Rome, Naples. In Italy it is so shocked creations by masters of the Renaissance, and in Paris — the work of Impressionists and post-Impressionists that Grabar for 1896−1900, travels to Europe "for a detailed and in-depth study of world art and obtain architectural education".
In 1900 Grabar returned to Russia, and here begins, according to the artist, his most creative period". He again after a long absence falls in love with the Russian nature, stunned by the beauty of Russian winter, without end writes "supernatural wood, wood-tale" - birch. In the Moscow region, created his most famous works: "the September snow" (1903), "White winter. Rooks nest", "February Lazur", "March snow" (all 1904), "Chrysanthemums" (1905), "Clean table" (1907) and other Grabar writes in the open air, taking into account the achievements of the French Impressionists, but, not wanting them to blindly imitate, writes in Russian, loving "reality and reality". "February Lazur" - a majestic portrait of birch. We look at it from the bottom up, from the deepest trench in the snow, which had been dug by the author in which he worked, despite the bitter cold and full of joy "bells and preklicano of all colors, combined blue enamel of the sky". The landscape is painted with pure colors, brush strokes on a dense layer. "March snow" - "bright impressionistic thing by design and texture" - the artist wrote in the open air "with the same passion and excitement that threw paint on the canvas, as in a frenzy, not too hesitate and weighing only trying to pass a dazzling impression of this lively major fanfare". In these works the Grabar was able to create a new (after Russian landscape painters of the XIX century), generalized image of Russian nature.
1910−23, the artist called the period of withdrawal from painting and Hobbies architecture, history of art, Museum activities, the protection of monuments. He conceives and implements the first edition of "the History of Russian art" in six volumes (1909 — 16), says her most important sections, publishes monographs on C. A. Serov and I. I. Levitan.
For twelve years (1913−25) Grabar heads the Tretyakov gallery, significantly changing the principles of Museum work. After the revolution he does a lot for the protection of cultural monuments from destruction. In 1918 on the initiative of the Grabar created the Central restoration workshops, with which it will be connected life and who are now his name. Here were opened and saved many works of ancient Russian art.
From 1924 to the end of the 1940s, Grabar again much engaged in painting and especially enjoys portrait. It depicts their loved ones, portraits of scientists and musicians. The best the artist himself called "portrait of a mother" (1924), "Svetlana" (1933), "portrait of the daughter on a winter landscape" (1934), "Portrait of the son" (1935), "Portrait of academician S. A. Chaplygin" (1935). Widely known and two self-portrait of the artist ("self-Portrait with palette", 1934; "self-portrait in a fur coat", 1947). He says and to the thematic picture "V. I. Lenin was a direct line" (1933), "the Peasants-walkers at a reception at C. I. Lenin" (1938). Of course, he continued to paint landscapes, preferring still snow, sun and smile life: "Last snow" (1931), "birch alley" (1940), "Winter landscape" (1954), a series of paintings on the theme "the Day of the frost".
Grabar works in traditions of Russian realistic painting of the late nineteenth century, remaining, as well as in other areas of its activities, the guardian of Russian culture. "The best rest is the change of work", — said the artist. If he had painted the picture, then taught, were prepared exhibitions or engaged in art historical research. Death caught him at work on a new multi-volume edition of "the History of Russian art". "It is necessary to consider happiness for Russian art that this person really existed," spoke of him With. Century Gerasimov.